Dalton Islamic Center

Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem

 

 

Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Table of Contents

 

I. Introduction: Basic Information

 

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction

 

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 

 

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 

 

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an

 

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

 

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise


7.
Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?  

 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  

 

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective 

 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an  

 

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure

 

1. Islamic Proclamation of Faith

 

2. Performing Islamic Prayers

 

3. Giving Zakah (Charity)

 

4. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims

 

5. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar

 

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 

 

2. Angels

 

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  

 

4. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

 

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran

 

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  

 

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

 

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj

 

9. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

 

10. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

 

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds

 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

 

2. The La (No) Commands

 

3. The Imperative Commands 

 

***

 

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

 

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

 

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

 

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

 

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

 

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

 

Links to Islamic topics 2006

 

Links to Islamic topics 2005

 

Links to Islamic topics 2004

 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

 

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

 

 

Islam:

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

III.5

 

Moussa, Moses,

 

Peace to him

 

In the Holy Quran

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

3rd of Jumada Al-Oula, 1436 - 22nd of February, 2015

 

 

7   1436 - 26 2015

 

***

 

ٰ

 

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The name of the Messenger of Allah Moussa (Moses), peace be upon him (pbuh), is mentioned in the Holy Quran 136 times, which is many more times than mentioning names of other Messengers of Allah. Actually, the story of Moussa and his people (the Children of Israel) is strongly present and used throughout the Holy Quran as guidance and lessons to humanity. [1]

 

Although it is not possible to write about Moussa, peace be upon him, without including the Children of Israel, this article focuses on his life, mission, and the lessons Allah wants humanity to learn from. The story of Children of Israel in the Holy Quran is much bigger than an article or a chapter of a book. It needs to be addressed separately elsewhere.

 

This article tells the story of Moussa, peace be upon him, as documented in the verses of the Holy Quran, from various chapters. The presentation of these verses is an attempt by this author to follow some kind of a chronological order, which may not coincide with the verse or chapter numbers in the Holy Quran.

 

The English translation of the verses in this article is based on the translation of "Sahih International," which is published at the www.tanzil.net website. However, this author is solely responsible for any changes in the translation.

 

The article starts with Moussa's birth (pbuh), his adoption and education in the Pharaoh's palace, then his running away from Egypt, settling down in Madyan, speaking with Allah and receiving his mission mandate, his encounter with the Pharaoh and demanding him to free the Children of Israel, the Pharaoh's refusal and God's signs to convince him, the Exodus and the miracle of splitting the sea, death of the Pharaoh by drowning and preserving his body as a lesson to humanity, the inability to enter the Holy Land from the coastal region, loss in Sinai for forty years, the Tablets and the calf ordeal, and the crash course of learning from Al-Khadr. 

 

 

 

Birth, Adoption, and Education in the Pharaoh's Palace

 

 

Moussa, pbuh, was born in Egypt at a time when the Pharaoh (King) was a brutal tyrant, dividing the people into factions, and persecuting some of them by killing their newly-born sons and leaving their daughters to live. Allah, praise to Him, decided to save the oppressed people and to punish the Pharaoh, his prime minister Haman, and their soldiers (Al-Qasas, 28: 1-6).

 

Allah, praise to Him, inspired Moussa's mother to put him in a chest (box) and to throw him on the River Nile, the water flow took him to the Pharaoh's palace, where he was picked up by the servants. As soldiers were about to kill him, like other newly-born boys, the Pharaoh's wife persuaded her husband to save his life and adopt him, as they didn't have a son at that time. However, the baby Moussa refused to suckle milk from any nursing woman they brought him. His sister told them that she knew one more nursing woman he might accept. That was his mother, whom he accepted, which made her happy after her sadness (Al-Qasas, 28: 7-13, Taha, 20: 38-40).

 

 

 

ٰ

 

  ﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٣﴾  ۚ ﴿٤﴾ ﴿٥﴾ ﴿٦( 28: 1-6).  

 

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful 

 

Ta, Seen, Meem. (1) These are the verses of the clear Book. (2) We recite to you from the news of Moses and Pharaoh in truth for a people who believe. (3) Indeed, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and made its people into factions, oppressing a sector among them, slaughtering their [newborn] sons and keeping their females alive. Indeed, he was of the corrupters. (4) And We wanted to confer favor upon those who were oppressed in the land and make them leaders and make them inheritors (5) And establish them in the land and show Pharaoh and [his minister] Haman and their soldiers through them that which they had feared. (6) (Al-Qasas, 28: 1-6).

 

 

ٰ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ ﴿٧﴾  ۗ ﴿٨﴾  ۖ ٰ ﴿٩﴾ ٰ  ۖ ٰ ﴿١٠﴾  ۖ ﴿١١﴾ ٰ ﴿١٢﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿١٣( 28: 7-13).  

 

And We inspired to the mother of Moses, "Suckle him; but when you fear for him, cast him into the river and do not fear and do not grieve. Indeed, We will return him to you and will make him [one] of the messengers." (7) And the family of Pharaoh picked him up [out of the river] so that he would become to them an enemy and a [cause of] grief. Indeed, Pharaoh and Haman and their soldiers were deliberate sinners. (8) And the wife of Pharaoh said, "[He will be] a comfort of the eye for me and for you. Do not kill him; perhaps he may benefit us, or we may adopt him as a son." And they perceived not. (9) And the heart of Moses' mother became empty [of all else]. She was about to disclose [the matter concerning] him had We not bound fast her heart that she would be of the believers. (10) And she said to his sister, "Follow him"; so she watched him from a distance while they perceived not. (11) And We had prevented from him [all] wet nurses before, so she said, "Shall I direct you to a household that will be responsible for him for you while they are to him [for his upbringing] sincere?" (12) So We restored him to his mother that she might be content and not grieve and that she would know that the promise of Allah is true. But most of the people do not know. (13) (Al-Qasas, 28: 7-13).

 

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿٣٨﴾  ۚ ٰ ﴿٣٩﴾ ٰ  ۖ ٰ  ۚ  ۚ ٰ ٰ ﴿٤٠﴾ ﴿٤١ ( 20: 38-40).

 

 

When We inspired to your mother what We inspired, (38) [Saying], 'Cast him into the chest and cast it into the river, and the river will throw it onto the bank; there will take him an enemy to Me and an enemy to him.' And I bestowed upon you love from Me that you would be brought up under My eye. (39) [And We favored you] when your sister went and said, 'Shall I direct you to someone who will be responsible for him?' So We restored you to your mother that she might be content and not grieve. And you killed someone, but We saved you from retaliation and tried you with a [severe] trial. And you remained [some] years among the people of Madyan. Then you came [here] at the decreed time, O Moses. (40) And I produced you for Myself. (41)

(Taha, 20: 38-40). 

 

 

 

Running Away from Egypt

 

 

Thus, Moussa, pbuh, was saved and was brought up as the adopted son of the Pharaoh. However, he still knew his origin as an  Israelite. So, one day, when he became a strong youngman, an Israelite was being beaten by an Egyptian man. The Israelite saw Moussa, and asked him for help. Moussa, pbuh, killed the Egyptian man with one blow. The following day, the same scene was repeated but Moussa did not kill the other Egyptian man. Moussa was told that the soldiers were looking for him to kill him for killing the Egyptian man the day before. He became afraid and decided to flee Egypt to avoid the punishment ( Al-Qasas, 28: 14-21). 

 

 

ٰ  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٤﴾ ٰ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ٰ  ۖ ﴿١٥﴾  ۚ ﴿١٦﴾ ﴿١٧﴾  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٨﴾ ٰ  ۖ ﴿١٩﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٢٠﴾  ۖ ﴿٢١( 28: 14-21).  

 

And when he attained his full strength and was [mentally] mature, We bestowed upon him judgment and knowledge. And thus do We reward the doers of good. (14) And he entered the city at a time of inattention by its people and found therein two men fighting: one from his faction and one from among his enemy. And the one from his faction called for help to him against the one from his enemy, so Moses struck him and [unintentionally] killed him. [Moses] said, "This is from the work of Satan. Indeed, he is a manifest, misleading enemy." (15) He said, "My Lord, indeed I have wronged myself, so forgive me," and He forgave him. Indeed, He is the Forgiving, the Merciful. (16) He said, "My Lord, for the favor You bestowed upon me, I will never be an assistant to the criminals." (17) And he became inside the city fearful and anticipating [exposure], when suddenly the one who sought his help the previous day cried out to him [once again]. Moses said to him, "Indeed, you are an evident, [persistent] deviator." (18) And when he wanted to strike the one who was an enemy to both of them, he said, "O Moses, do you intend to kill me as you killed someone yesterday? You only want to be a tyrant in the land and do not want to be of the amenders." (19) And a man came from the farthest end of the city, running. He said, "O Moses, indeed the eminent ones are conferring over you [intending] to kill you, so leave [the city]; indeed, I am to you of the sincere advisors." (20) So he left it, fearful and anticipating [apprehension]. He said, "My Lord, save me from the wrongdoing people." (21) (Al-Qasas, 28: 14-21). 

 

 

 

Settling Down in Madyan

 

 

Moussa, pbuh, left Egypt traveling in the Sinai desert until he reached Madyan. There, he saw two women who needed assistance to water their herd of animal from a water well. He helped them. As they left, he sat under a tree , hungry and tired, asking help from Allah, praise to Him. One of the two women came back to him, telling him that her elderly father wanted to reward him for what he did. Moussa told his story and the old man told him not to be afraid any more as he became safe in Madyan. One of the two daughters asked her father to hire him, as he turned to be a strong and a trust-worthy man. The Elderly man offered him to marry one of his two daughters in return for his work in taking care of their animals for eight years, then he asked for two more years, as an extra favor (Al-Qasas, 28: 22-28). 

 

 

ٰ ﴿٢٢﴾  ۖ  ۖ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٢٣﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٢٤﴾  ۚ  ۖ ﴿٢٥﴾  ۖ ﴿٢٦﴾ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ  ۚ ﴿٢٧﴾ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ ٰ ﴿٢٨( 28: 22-28).  

 

And when he directed himself toward Madyan, he said, "Perhaps my Lord will guide me to the sound way." (22) And when he came to the well of Madyan, he found there a crowd of people watering [their flocks], and he found aside from them two women driving back [their flocks]. He said, "What is your circumstance?" They said, "We do not water until the shepherds dispatch [their flocks]; and our father is an old man." (23) So he watered [their flocks] for them; then he went back to the shade and said, "My Lord, indeed I am, for whatever good You would send down to me, in need." (24) Then one of the two women came to him walking with shyness. She said, "Indeed, my father invites you that he may reward you for having watered for us." So when he came to him and related to him the story, he said, "Fear not. You have escaped from the wrongdoing people." (25) One of the women said, "O my father, hire him. Indeed, the best one you can hire is the strong and the trustworthy." (26) He said, "Indeed, I wish to wed you one of these, my two daughters, on [the condition] that you serve me for eight years; but if you complete ten, it will be [as a favor] from you. And I do not wish to put you in difficulty. You will find me, if Allah wills, from among the righteous." (27) [Moses] said, "That is [established] between me and you. Whichever of the two terms I complete - there is no injustice to me, and Allah, over what we say, is Witness." (28) (Al-Qasas, 28: 22-28). 

 

 

Speaking With Allah and Receiving the Mission Mandate

 

 

When Moussa, pbuh, completed the ten years of work for his father-in-law, he left with his family and their animals to visit his relatives in Egypt, secretly. During their travel in Sinai, near Al-Tour, he saw a fire. He told his family members to stay where they were while he would explore the fire and bring a piece of it back for them to use afterwards. As he reached the fire, which was in a tree, he heard Allah, praise to Him, speaking to him, saying "I am Allah, the Lord of the Worlds." (Al-Qasas, 28: 29-30).

 

Then, Allah, praise to Him, wanted to show Moussa proofs that he is in the presnce of Allah. He told him to throw his stick (staff) on the ground, which when he did turned to a huge snake, shaking like a Jinn. Moussa was scared and ran away but Allah, praise to Him, called him to come back, assuring him that he was safe. In another proof, Allah, praise to Him, told Moussa to put his hand in his pocket then to get it out. When he did, he saw the color of his hand turning white, without sickness or harm. These two proofs assured Moussa, pbuh, that he was in the presence of Allah, praise to Him.

 

Then, Allah, praise to Him, gave Moussa his mission and mandate. He told him to go to the Pharaoh and ask him to let the oppressed Israelites leave Egypt. Moussa replied that he maybe killed if they knew about him. As he was assured of God's protection, he asked that his brother Haroon (Aaron) be part of the mission, as support for him, and as he was more eloquent than himself. Allah, praise to Him, agreed and promised protection for both of them (Al-Qasas, 28: 29-35, Taha, 20: 9-98, Al-Shu'ara, 26: 10-17, Al-Naml, 27: 7-14).

 

More specific details are given in verses 9-48 of Surat Taha (Chapter 20) of the Holy Quran, as follows. 

 

 

ٰ ﴿٢٩﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٠﴾  ۖ ٰ  ۚ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٣١﴾  ۖ ٰ  ۚ ﴿٣٢﴾ ﴿٣٣﴾  ۖ ﴿٣٤﴾  ۚ ﴿٣٥( 28: 29-35).  

 

And when Moses had completed the term and was traveling with his family, he perceived from the direction of the mount a fire. He said to his family, "Stay here; indeed, I have perceived a fire. Perhaps I will bring you from there [some] information or burning wood from the fire that you may warm yourselves." (29) But when he came to it, he was called from the right side of the valley in a blessed spot - from the tree, "O Moses, indeed I am Allah, Lord of the worlds." (30) And [he was told], "Throw down your staff." But when he saw it writhing as if it was a snake, he turned in flight and did not return. [Allah said], "O Moses, approach and fear not. Indeed, you are of the secure. (31) Insert your hand into the opening of your garment; it will come out white, without disease. And draw in your arm close to you [as prevention] from fear, for those are two proofs from your Lord to Pharaoh and his establishment. Indeed, they have been a people defiantly disobedient." (32) He said, "My Lord, indeed, I killed from among them someone, and I fear they will kill me. (33) And my brother Aaron is more fluent than me in tongue, so send him with me as support, verifying me. Indeed, I fear that they will deny me." (34) [Allah] said, "We will strengthen your arm through your brother and grant you both supremacy so they will not reach you. [It will be] through Our signs; you and those who follow you will be the predominant." (35) (Al-Qasas, 28: 29-35).

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿١٠﴾  ۚ ﴿١١﴾ ﴿١٢﴾ ٰ ﴿١٣﴾ ﴿١٤﴾  ۖ  ۖ ﴿١٥﴾ ﴿١٦﴾ ﴿١٧( 26: 10-17).

 

And [mention] when your Lord called Moses, [saying], "Go to the wrongdoing people - (10) The people of Pharaoh. Will they not fear Allah?" (11) He said, "My Lord, indeed I fear that they will deny me (12) And that my breast will tighten and my tongue will not be fluent, so send for Aaron. (13) And they have upon me a [claim due to] sin, so I fear that they will kill me." (14) [Allah] said, "No. Go both of you with Our signs; indeed, We are with you, listening. (15) Go to Pharaoh and say, 'We are the messengers of the Lord of the worlds, (16) [Commanded to say], "Send with us the Children of Israel."'" (17) (Al-Shu'ara, 26: 10-17). 

 

ٰ ﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨﴾ ٰ ﴿٩﴾  ۚ ٰ  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٠﴾ ﴿١١﴾  ۖ ٰ  ۚ ﴿١٢﴾ ٰ ﴿١٣﴾  ۚ ﴿١٤( 27: 7-14).

 

[Mention] when Moses said to his family, "Indeed, I have perceived a fire. I will bring you from there information or will bring you a burning torch that you may warm yourselves." (7) But when he came to it, he was called, "Blessed is whoever is at the fire and whoever is around it. And exalted is Allah, Lord of the worlds. (8) O Moses, indeed it is I - Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise." (9) And [he was told], "Throw down your staff." But when he saw it writhing as if it were a snake, he turned in flight and did not return. [Allah said], "O Moses, fear not. Indeed, in My presence the messengers do not fear. (10) Otherwise, he who wrongs, then substitutes good after evil - indeed, I am Forgiving and Merciful. (11) And put your hand into the opening of your garment [at the breast]; it will come out white without disease. [These are] among the nine signs [you will take] to Pharaoh and his people. Indeed, they have been a people defiantly disobedient." (12) But when there came to them Our visible signs, they said, "This is obvious magic." (13) And they rejected them, while their [inner] selves were convinced thereof, out of injustice and haughtiness. So see how was the end of the corrupters. (14) (Al-Naml, 27: 7-14). 

 

ٰ ﴿٩﴾ ٰ ﴿١٠﴾ ٰ ﴿١١﴾  ۖ ﴿١٢﴾ ٰ ﴿١٣﴾ ٰ ﴿١٤﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿١٥﴾ ٰ ﴿١٦﴾ ٰ ﴿١٧﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿١٨﴾ ٰ ﴿١٩﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٠﴾  ۖ ٰ ﴿٢١﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٢٢﴾ ﴿٢٣﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٢٤( 20: 9-24).

 

﴿٢٥﴾ ﴿٢٦﴾ ﴿٢٧﴾ ﴿٢٨﴾ ﴿٢٩﴾ ﴿٣٠﴾ ﴿٣١﴾ ﴿٣٢﴾ ﴿٣٣﴾ ﴿٣٤﴾ ﴿٣٥﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٦﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٧( 20: 25-37).

 

   ٰ ٰ ﴿٣٨﴾  ۚ ٰ ﴿٣٩﴾ ٰ  ۖ ٰ  ۚ  ۚ ٰ ٰ ﴿٤٠﴾ ﴿٤١( 20: 38-41).

 

﴿٤٢﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٤٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٤٤﴾ ٰ ﴿٤٥﴾  ۖ ٰ ﴿٤٦﴾  ۖ  ۖ ٰ ٰ ﴿٤٧﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٤٨( 20: 42-48). 

 

 

And has the story of Moses reached you? - (9) When he saw a fire and said to his family, "Stay here; indeed, I have perceived a fire; perhaps I can bring you a torch or find at the fire some guidance." (10) And when he came to it, he was called, "O Moses, (11) Indeed, I am your Lord, so remove your sandals. Indeed, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa. (12) And I have chosen you, so listen to what is revealed [to you]. (13) Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance. (14) Indeed, the Hour is coming - I almost conceal it - so that every soul may be recompensed according to that for which it strives. (15) So do not let one avert you from it who does not believe in it and follows his desire, for you [then] would perish. (16) And what is that in your right hand, O Moses?" (17) He said, "It is my staff; I lean upon it, and I bring down leaves for my sheep and I have therein other uses." (18) [Allah] said, "Throw it down, O Moses." (19) So he threw it down, and thereupon it was a snake, moving swiftly. (20) [Allah] said, "Seize it and fear not; We will return it to its former condition. (21) And draw in your hand to your side; it will come out white without disease - another sign, (22) That We may show you [some] of Our greater signs. (23) Go to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed." (24) (Taha, 20: 9-98).

 

 

[Moses] said, "My Lord, expand for me my breast [with assurance] (25) And ease for me my task (26) And untie the knot from my tongue (27) That they may understand my speech. (28) And appoint for me a minister from my family - (29) Aaron, my brother. (30) Increase through him my strength (31) And let him share my task (32) That we may exalt You much (33) And remember You much. (34) Indeed, You are of us ever Seeing." (35) [Allah] said, "You have been granted your request, O Moses. (36) And We had already conferred favor upon you another time, (37) (Taha, 20: 9-98).

 

 

 When We inspired to your mother what We inspired, (38) [Saying], 'Cast him into the chest and cast it into the river, and the river will throw it onto the bank; there will take him an enemy to Me and an enemy to him.' And I bestowed upon you love from Me that you would be brought up under My eye. (39) [And We favored you] when your sister went and said, 'Shall I direct you to someone who will be responsible for him?' So We restored you to your mother that she might be content and not grieve. And you killed someone, but We saved you from retaliation and tried you with a [severe] trial. And you remained [some] years among the people of Madyan. Then you came [here] at the decreed time, O Moses. (40) And I produced you for Myself. (41)

(Taha, 20: 9-98).

 

Go, you and your brother, with My signs and do not slacken in My remembrance. (42) Go, both of you, to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed. (43) And speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or fear [Allah]." (44) They said, "Our Lord, indeed we are afraid that he will hasten [punishment] against us or that he will transgress." (45) [Allah] said, "Fear not. Indeed, I am with you both; I hear and I see. (46) So go to him and say, 'Indeed, we are messengers of your Lord, so send with us the Children of Israel and do not torment them. We have come to you with a sign from your Lord. And peace will be upon he who follows the guidance. (47) Indeed, it has been revealed to us that the punishment will be upon whoever denies and turns away.' " (48) (Taha, 20: 9-98).  

 

 

 

Encounter With the Pharoah and the Demand to Free the Children of Israel

 

 

Moussa and Haroon (Moses and Aaron) met with the Pharaoh and his close circle, and demanded that the Children of Israel be let free to leave. The Pharaoh, his prime minister Haman, and Qaroon (Karen), who was an Israelite but the wealthiest in Egypt, did not agree to Moussa's demand and accused him of being a liar magician. They even replied with the resumption of the killing of the sons of those who believed in Allah with Moussa. The Pharaoh announced his intention to Kill Moussa to see if his Lord, Allah, would protect him or not. However, there was one man, a relative of the Pharaoh, who was a believer hiding his faith, who stopped that from happening. He argued trying to dissuade the Pharaoh from killing Moussa, saying that he maybe telling the truth as a Messenger of Allah. If he is killed or his demand is not met, then God's punishment would come, as was the case with the nations who defied Allah and His Messengers before (Ghafir, 40: 23-33).

 

The Pharaoh reminded Moussa of the favors he showered him with as he brought him up in the palace. Then, he threatened to imprison him if he would persist in worshipping another god than him. Moussa replied by showing him and his audience the two proofs about the existence of Allah, the only God. He threw his stick (staff) on the ground, which turned into a huge snake. He also got his hand out of his pocket, which turned white. The Pharaoh replied that this was just magic and his advisers suggested to have a contest between Moussa and Egypt's magicians to refute his claims about being a Messenger of Allah (Al-Shu'ara, 26: 18-39).

 

The Egyptian magicians threw their sticks and ropes on the ground, which turned into what looks like moving snakes. Moussa, then, threw his stick on the ground. It turned into a huge snake, which devoured all of their made-believe snakes. At that moment, the Egyptian magicians made prostration to Allah, proclaiming their faith in Him. However, this was not enough for the Pharaoh to believe. He  ordered the magicialns to be tortured and crucified, accusing them of being followers of Moussa (Al-Shu'ara, 26: 40-60; Taha, 20: 49-76; Al-A'araf, 7: 113-126; Younus, 10: 79-89; Al-Zuhkhruf, 43: 46-56).

 

 

ٰ ﴿٢٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٤﴾  ۚ ﴿٢٥﴾ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٢٦﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٧﴾  ۖ  ۖ  ۖ ﴿٢٨﴾  ۚ ٰ ﴿٢٩﴾ ﴿٣٠﴾  ۚ ﴿٣١﴾ ﴿٣٢﴾  ۗ ﴿٣٣( 40: 23-33).

 

And We did certainly send Moses with Our signs and a clear authority (23) To Pharaoh, Haman and Qarun; but they said, "[He is] a magician and a liar." (24) And when he brought them the truth from Us, they said, "Kill the sons of those who have believed with him and keep their women alive." But the plan of the disbelievers is not except in error. (25) And Pharaoh said, "Let me kill Moses and let him call upon his Lord. Indeed, I fear that he will change your religion or that he will cause corruption in the land." (26) But Moses said, "Indeed, I have sought refuge in my Lord and your Lord from every arrogant one who does not believe in the Day of Account." (27) And a believing man from the family of Pharaoh who concealed his faith said, "Do you kill a man [merely] because he says, 'My Lord is Allah' while he has brought you clear proofs from your Lord? And if he should be lying, then upon him is [the consequence of] his lie; but if he should be truthful, there will strike you some of what he promises you. Indeed, Allah does not guide one who is a transgressor and a liar. (28) O my people, sovereignty is yours today, [your being] dominant in the land. But who would protect us from the punishment of Allah if it came to us?" Pharaoh said, "I do not show you except what I see, and I do not guide you except to the way of right conduct." (29) And he who believed said, "O my people, indeed I fear for you [a fate] like the day of the companies - (30) Like the custom of the people of Noah and of 'Aad and Thamud and those after them. And Allah wants no injustice for [His] servants. (31) And O my people, indeed I fear for you the Day of Calling - (32) The Day you will turn your backs fleeing; there is not for you from Allah any protector. And whoever Allah leaves astray - there is not for him any guide. (33) (Ghafir, 40: 23-33).

 

 

﴿١٨﴾ ﴿١٩﴾ ﴿٢٠﴾ ﴿٢١﴾ ﴿٢٢﴾ ﴿٢٣﴾  ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾ ﴿٢٥﴾ ﴿٢٦﴾ ﴿٢٧﴾  ۖ ﴿٢٨﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٩﴾ ﴿٣٠﴾ ﴿٣١﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٢﴾ ﴿٣٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٤﴾ ﴿٣٥﴾ ﴿٣٦﴾ ﴿٣٧﴾ ﴿٣٨﴾ ﴿٣٩( 26: 18-39).

 

 

 

[Pharaoh] said, "Did we not raise you among us as a child, and you remained among us for years of your life? (18) And [then] you did your deed which you did, and you were of the ungrateful." (19) [Moses] said, "I did it, then, while I was of those astray. (20) So I fled from you when I feared you. Then my Lord granted me wisdom and prophethood and appointed me [as one] of the messengers. (21) And is this a favor of which you remind me - that you have enslaved the Children of Israel?" (22) Said Pharaoh, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" (23) [Moses] said, "The Lord of the heavens and earth and that between them, if you should be convinced." (24) [Pharaoh] said to those around him, "Do you not hear?" (25) [Moses] said, "Your Lord and the Lord of your first forefathers." (26) [Pharaoh] said, "Indeed, your 'messenger' who has been sent to you is mad." (27) [Moses] said, "Lord of the east and the west and that between them, if you were to reason." (28) [Pharaoh] said, "If you take a god other than me, I will surely place you among those imprisoned." (29) [Moses] said, "Even if I brought you proof manifest?" (30) [Pharaoh] said, "Then bring it, if you should be of the truthful." (31) So [Moses] threw his staff, and suddenly it was a serpent manifest. (32) And he drew out his hand; thereupon it was white for the observers. (33) [Pharaoh] said to the eminent ones around him, "Indeed, this is a learned magician. (34) He wants to drive you out of your land by his magic, so what do you advise?" (35) They said, "Postpone [the matter of] him and his brother and send among the cities gatherers (36) Who will bring you every learned, skilled magician." (37) So the magicians were assembled for the appointment of a well-known day. (38) And it was said to the people, "Will you congregate (39) (Al-Shu'ara, 26: 18-39).

 

 

﴿٤٠﴾ ﴿٤١﴾ ﴿٤٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٤٣﴾ ﴿٤٤﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٤٥﴾ ﴿٤٦﴾ ﴿٤٧﴾ ٰ ﴿٤٨﴾  ۖ  ۚ ﴿٤٩﴾  ۖ ٰ ﴿٥٠﴾ ﴿٥١﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٥٢﴾ ﴿٥٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٤﴾ ﴿٥٥﴾ ﴿٥٦﴾ ﴿٥٧﴾ ﴿٥٨﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٩﴾ ﴿٦٠( 26: 40-60).

 

 

That we might follow the magicians if they are the predominant?" (40) And when the magicians arrived, they said to Pharaoh, "Is there indeed for us a reward if we are the predominant?" (41) He said, "Yes, and indeed, you will then be of those near [to me]." (42) Moses said to them, "Throw whatever you will throw." (43) So they threw their ropes and their staffs and said, "By the might of Pharaoh, indeed it is we who are predominant." (44) Then Moses threw his staff, and at once it devoured what they falsified. (45) So the magicians fell down in prostration [to Allah]. (46) They said, "We have believed in the Lord of the worlds, (47) The Lord of Moses and Aaron." (48) [Pharaoh] said, "You believed Moses before I gave you permission. Indeed, he is your leader who has taught you magic, but you are going to know. I will surely cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and I will surely crucify you all." (49) They said, "No harm. Indeed, to our Lord we will return. (50) Indeed, we aspire that our Lord will forgive us our sins because we were the first of the believers." (51) (Al-Shu'ara, 26: 40-60).

 

 

ٰ ﴿٤٩﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٥٠﴾ ٰ ﴿٥١﴾  ۖ ﴿٥٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٣﴾  ۗ ٰ ٰ ﴿٥٤﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٥﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٦﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٧﴾ ﴿٥٨﴾ ﴿٥٩﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٦٠﴾ ٰ  ۖ ٰ ﴿٦١﴾ ٰ ﴿٦٢﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٦٣﴾  ۚ ٰ ﴿٦٤﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٦٥﴾  ۖ ٰ ﴿٦٦﴾ ٰ ﴿٦٧﴾ ٰ ﴿٦٨﴾  ۖ  ۖ ٰ ﴿٦٩﴾ ٰ ﴿٧٠﴾  ۖ  ۖ ٰ ﴿٧١﴾ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ ٰ ﴿٧٢﴾  ۗ ٰ ﴿٧٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٧٤﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٧٥﴾  ۚ ٰ ٰ ﴿٧٦( 20: 49-76).  

 

[Pharaoh] said, "So who is the Lord of you two, O Moses?" (49) He said, "Our Lord is He who gave each thing its form and then guided [it]." (50) [Pharaoh] said, "Then what is the case of the former generations?" (51) [Moses] said, "The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in a record. My Lord neither errs nor forgets." (52) [It is He] who has made for you the earth as a bed [spread out] and inserted therein for you roadways and sent down from the sky, rain and produced thereby categories of various plants. (53) Eat [therefrom] and pasture your livestock. Indeed, in that are signs for those of intelligence. (54) From the earth We created you, and into it We will return you, and from it We will extract you another time. (55) And We certainly showed Pharaoh Our signs - all of them - but he denied and refused. (56) He said, "Have you come to us to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Moses? (57) Then we will surely bring you magic like it, so make between us and you an appointment, which we will not fail to keep and neither will you, in a place assigned." (58) [Moses] said, "Your appointment is on the day of the festival when the people assemble at mid-morning." (59) So Pharaoh went away, put together his plan, and then came [to Moses]. (60) Moses said to the magicians summoned by Pharaoh, "Woe to you! Do not invent a lie against Allah or He will exterminate you with a punishment; and he has failed who invents [such falsehood]." (61) So they disputed over their affair among themselves and concealed their private conversation. (62) They said, "Indeed, these are two magicians who want to drive you out of your land with their magic and do away with your most exemplary way. (63) So resolve upon your plan and then come [forward] in line. And he has succeeded today who overcomes." (64) They said, "O Moses, either you throw or we will be the first to throw." (65) He said, "Rather, you throw." And suddenly their ropes and staffs seemed to him from their magic that they were moving [like snakes]. (66) And he sensed within himself apprehension, did Moses. (67) Allah said, "Fear not. Indeed, it is you who are superior. (68) And throw what is in your right hand; it will swallow up what they have crafted. What they have crafted is but the trick of a magician, and the magician will not succeed wherever he is." (69) So the magicians fell down in prostration. They said, "We have believed in the Lord of Aaron and Moses." (70) [Pharaoh] said, "You believed him before I gave you permission. Indeed, he is your leader who has taught you magic. So I will surely cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you on the trunks of palm trees, and you will surely know which of us is more severe in [giving] punishment and more enduring." (71) They said, "Never will we prefer you over what has come to us of clear proofs and [over] He who created us. So decree whatever you are to decree. You can only decree for this worldly life. (72) Indeed, we have believed in our Lord that He may forgive us our sins and what you compelled us [to do] of magic. And Allah is better and more enduring." (73) Indeed, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal - indeed, for him is Hell; he will neither die therein nor live. (74) But whoever comes to Him as a believer having done righteous deeds - for those will be the highest degrees [in position]: (75) Gardens of perpetual residence beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. And that is the reward of one who purifies himself. (76) (Taha, 20: 49-76).

 

ٰ ٰ  ۖ ﴿١٠٣﴾ ٰ ﴿١٠٤﴾ ٰ  ۚ ﴿١٠٥﴾ ﴿١٠٦﴾ ٰ ﴿١٠٧﴾ ﴿١٠٨﴾ ٰ ﴿١٠٩﴾  ۖ ﴿١١٠﴾ ﴿١١١﴾ ﴿١١٢( 7: 103-112).

 

Then We sent after them Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his establishment, but they were unjust toward them. So see how was the end of the corrupters. (103) And Moses said, "O Pharaoh, I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds (104) [Who is] obligated not to say about Allah except the truth. I have come to you with clear evidence from your Lord, so send with me the Children of Israel." (105) [Pharaoh] said, "If you have come with a sign, then bring it forth, if you should be of the truthful." (106) So Moses threw his staff, and suddenly it was a serpent, manifest. (107) And he drew out his hand; thereupon it was white [with radiance] for the observers. (108) Said the eminent among the people of Pharaoh, "Indeed, this is a learned magician (109) Who wants to expel you from your land [through magic], so what do you instruct?" (110) They said, "Postpone [the matter of] him and his brother and send among the cities gatherers (111) Who will bring you every learned magician." (112) (Al-A'araf, 7: 103-112).  

 

 

﴿١١٣﴾ ﴿١١٤﴾ ٰ ﴿١١٥﴾  ۖ ﴿١١٦﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ﴿١١٧﴾ ﴿١١٨﴾ ﴿١١٩﴾ ﴿١٢٠ ( 7: 113-120).

 

And the magicians came to Pharaoh. They said, "Indeed for us is a reward if we are the predominant." (113) He said, "Yes, and, [moreover], you will be among those made near [to me]." (114) They said, "O Moses, either you throw [your staff], or we will be the ones to throw [first]." (115) He said, "Throw," and when they threw, they bewitched the eyes of the people and struck terror into them, and they presented a great [feat of] magic. (116) And We inspired to Moses, "Throw your staff," and at once it devoured what they were falsifying. (117) So the truth was established, and abolished was what they were doing. (118) And Pharaoh and his people were overcome right there and became debased. (119) And the magicians fell down in prostration [to Allah]. (120) (Al-A'araf, 7: 113-120).  

 

﴿١٢١﴾ ٰ ﴿١٢٢﴾  ۖ ٰ  ۖ ﴿١٢٣﴾ ﴿١٢٤﴾ ٰ ﴿١٢٥﴾  ۚ ﴿١٢٦( 7: 121-126).

 

They said, "We have believed in the Lord of the worlds, (121) The Lord of Moses and Aaron." (122) Said Pharaoh, "You believed in him before I gave you permission. Indeed, this is a conspiracy which you conspired in the city to expel therefrom its people. But you are going to know. (123) I will surely cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides; then I will surely crucify you all." (124) They said, "Indeed, to our Lord we will return. (125) And you do not resent us except because we believed in the signs of our Lord when they came to us. Our Lord, pour upon us patience and let us die as Muslims [in submission to You]." (126) (Al-A'araf, 7: 121-126).  

 

﴿٧٩﴾ ٰ ﴿٨٠﴾ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ ﴿٨١﴾ ﴿٨٢﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۚ ﴿٨٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٨٤﴾ ﴿٨٥﴾ ﴿٨٦﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۗ ﴿٨٧﴾ ٰ  ۖ ٰ ٰ ٰ ﴿٨٨﴾ ﴿٨٩( 10: 79-89).

 

 

And Pharaoh said, "Bring to me every learned magician." (79) So when the magicians came, Moses said to them, "Throw down whatever you will throw." (80) And when they had thrown, Moses said, "What you have brought is [only] magic. Indeed, Allah will expose its worthlessness. Indeed, Allah does not amend the work of corrupters. (81) And Allah will establish the truth by His words, even if the criminals dislike it." (82) But no one believed Moses, except [some] youths among his people, for fear of Pharaoh and his establishment that they would persecute them. And indeed, Pharaoh was haughty within the land, and indeed, he was of the transgressors (83) And Moses said, "O my people, if you have believed in Allah, then rely upon Him, if you should be Muslims." (84) So they said, "Upon Allah do we rely. Our Lord, make us not [objects of] trial for the wrongdoing people (85) And save us by Your mercy from the disbelieving people." (86) And We inspired to Moses and his brother, "Settle your people in Egypt in houses and make your houses [facing the] qiblah and establish prayer and give good tidings to the believers." (87) And Moses said, "Our Lord, indeed You have given Pharaoh and his establishment splendor and wealth in the worldly life, our Lord, that they may lead [men] astray from Your way. Our Lord, obliterate their wealth and harden their hearts so that they will not believe until they see the painful punishment." (88) Allah] said, "Your supplication has been answered." So remain on a right course and follow not the way of those who do not know." (89) (Younus, 10: 79-89).

 

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿٤٦﴾ ﴿٤٧﴾  ۖ ﴿٤٨﴾ ﴿٤٩﴾ ﴿٥٠﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٥١﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٢﴾ ﴿٥٣﴾  ۚ ﴿٥٤﴾ ﴿٥٥﴾ ﴿٥٦( 43: 46-56).

 

 

And certainly did We send Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his establishment, and he said, "Indeed, I am the messenger of the Lord of the worlds." (46) But when he brought them Our signs, at once they laughed at them. (47) And We showed them not a sign except that it was greater than its sister, and We seized them with affliction that perhaps they might return [to faith]. (48) And they said [to Moses], "O magician, invoke for us your Lord by what He has promised you. Indeed, we will be guided." (49) But when We removed from them the affliction, at once they broke their word. (50) And Pharaoh called out among his people; he said, "O my people, does not the kingdom of Egypt belong to me, and these rivers flowing beneath me; then do you not see? (51) Or am I [not] better than this one who is insignificant and hardly makes himself clear? (52) Then why have there not been placed upon him bracelets of gold or come with him the angels in conjunction?" (53) So he bluffed his people, and they obeyed him. Indeed, they were [themselves] a people defiantly disobedient [of Allah]. (54) And when they angered Us, We took retribution from them and drowned them all. (55) And We made them a precedent and an example for the later peoples. (56) (Al-Zuhkhruf, 43: 46-56). 

 

 

 

Pharaoh's Refusal and God's Nine Signs to Convince him 

 

 

Despite the fact that Moussa, pbuh, won the contest against the Egyptian magicians, the Pharaoh and his inner circle still persisted in their arrogance. The Pharaoh continued demanding that people worship him as their only god. These two proofs or signs (Moussa's stick and his hand) were not enough for him to believe that Moussa was really a Messenger of Allah (Younus, 10: 75-78; Al-A'araf, 7: 127-129).

 

More proofs were needed to convince him. That's why Allah, praise to Him, supported Moussa's demand with seven more signs, which did affect the Pharaoh this time. These were years of famine, shortage in fruits, the flood, locusts, lice, frogs, and blood (Al-A'araf, 7: 130, 133).

 

The Pharaoh and his inner circle pleaded with Moussa to ask Allah to stop the punishment He inflected on them and they promised to end the suffering of the Children of Israel by letting them go with him. However, they broke their promise after Allah, praise to Him, stopped punishing them (Al-A'araf, 7: 134-135; Al-Qasas, 28: 36-43). 

 

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿٧٥﴾ ٰ ﴿٧٦﴾ ٰ  ۖ ٰ ﴿٧٧﴾ ﴿٧٨( 10: 75-78).

 

Then We sent after them Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh and his establishment with Our signs, but they behaved arrogantly and were a criminal people (75) So when there came to them the truth from Us, they said, "Indeed, this is obvious magic." (76) Moses said, "Do you say [thus] about the truth when it has come to you? Is this magic? But magicians will not succeed." (77) They said, "Have you come to us to turn us away from that upon which we found our fathers and so that you two may have grandeur in the land? And we are not believers in you." (78) (Younus, 10: 75-78).

 

 

ٰ  ۚ ﴿١٢٧﴾ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ ﴿١٢٨﴾  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٢٩( 7: 127-129).

 

And the eminent among the people of Pharaoh said," Will you leave Moses and his people to cause corruption in the land and abandon you and your gods?" [Pharaoh] said, "We will kill their sons and keep their women alive; and indeed, we are subjugators over them." (127) Said Moses to his people, "Seek help through Allah and be patient. Indeed, the earth belongs to Allah. He causes to inherit it whom He wills of His servants. And the [best] outcome is for the righteous." (128) They said, "We have been harmed before you came to us and after you have come to us." He said, "Perhaps your Lord will destroy your enemy and grant you succession in the land and see how you will do." (129) (Al-A'araf, 7: 127-129).     

 

 

ٰ  ۖ ٰ ﴿١٠١﴾ ٰ ﴿١٠٢( 17: 101-102).

 

 

And We had certainly given Moses nine evident signs, so ask the Children of Israel [about] when he came to them and Pharaoh said to him, "Indeed I think, O Moses, that you are affected by magic." (101) [Moses] said, "You have already known that none has sent down these [signs] except the Lord of the heavens and the earth as evidence, and indeed I think, O Pharaoh, that you are destroyed." (102) (Al-Issra, 17: 101-102).

 

 

﴿١٣٠  ٰ ۖ ٰ  ۗ ٰ ﴿١٣١﴾ ﴿١٣٢﴾ ﴿١٣٣﴾  ۖ ﴿١٣٤﴾ ٰ ﴿١٣٥( 7: 130-135). 

 

 

And We certainly seized the people of Pharaoh with years of famine and a deficiency in fruits that perhaps they would be reminded. (130) But when good came to them, they said, "This is ours [by right]." And if a bad [condition] struck them, they saw an evil omen in Moses and those with him. Unquestionably, their fortune is with Allah, but most of them do not know. (131) And they said, "No matter what sign you bring us with which to bewitch us, we will not be believers in you." (132) So We sent upon them the flood and locusts and lice and frogs and blood as distinct signs, but they were arrogant and were a criminal people. (133) And when the punishment descended upon them, they said, "O Moses, invoke for us your Lord by what He has promised you. If you [can] remove the punishment from us, we will surely believe you, and we will send with you the Children of Israel." (134) But when We removed the punishment from them until a term which they were to reach, then at once they broke their word. (135) (Al-A'araf, 7: 130-135). 

 

 

ٰ ٰ ٰ ﴿٣٦﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٣٧﴾ ٰ ٰ ٰ ٰ ﴿٣٨﴾ ﴿٣٩﴾  ۖ ﴿٤٠﴾  ۖ ﴿٤١﴾ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٤٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٤٣( 28: 36-43).  

 

But when Moses came to them with Our signs as clear evidences, they said, "This is not except invented magic, and we have not heard of this [religion] among our forefathers." (36) And Moses said, "My Lord is more knowing [than we or you] of who has come with guidance from Him and to whom will be succession in the home. Indeed, wrongdoers do not succeed." (37) And Pharaoh said, "O eminent ones, I have not known you to have a god other than me. Then ignite for me, O Haman, [a fire] upon the clay and make for me a tower that I may look at the God of Moses. And indeed, I do think he is among the liars." (38) And he was arrogant, he and his soldiers, in the land, without right, and they thought that they would not be returned to Us. (39) So We took him and his soldiers and threw them into the sea. So see how was the end of the wrongdoers. (40) And We made them leaders inviting to the Fire, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped. (41) And We caused to overtake them in this world a curse, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be of the despised. (42) And We gave Moses the Scripture, after We had destroyed the former generations, as enlightenment for the people and guidance and mercy that they might be reminded. (43) (Al-Qassas, 28: 36-43). 

 

 

 

The Exodus, the Miracle of Splitting the Sea, Death of the Pharoah and Preserving his Body, Glad Tiding to the Oppressed that they Inherit the Land [2]

 

 

As the Pharaoh broke his promise to let the Children of Israel go, Allah, praise to Him, inspired to Moussa to lead them out of Egypt. The Pharaoh still followed them with his soldiers and they were close to them near the sea. At that point, Allah, praise to Him, inspired Moussa to hit the sea with his stick (staff). When he did, the sea was split into two great mountains of water. The Israelites passed safely to the other shore but the Pharaoh still followed them with his soldiers. Then, the sea path was closed and the Pharaoh and his soldiers drowned. At that moment, the Pharaoh said that he believed in Allah, the God of the Children of Israel. But Allah answered him that his body will be rescued from the sea, in order to be a sign to the people after him.

 

Thus, Allah, praise to Him, is telling us the story of the Pharaoh and the Children of Israel, so we know that He punishes the tyrants and enables His oppressed worshippers to become the heirs who inherit the land, as stated in the following verses from Suras (Chapters) of Taha, Younus,  Al-Shu'ara, and Al-A'araf of the Holy Quran.

 

 

ٰ ٰ ٰ ﴿٧٧﴾ ﴿٧٨﴾ ٰ ﴿٧٩( 19: 77-79).

 

 ۖ ٰ ٰ ﴿٩٠﴾ ﴿٩١﴾  ۚ ﴿٩٢( 10: 90-92).

 

 

 

And We had inspired to Moses, "Travel by night with My servants and strike for them a dry path through the sea; you will not fear being overtaken [by Pharaoh] nor be afraid [of drowning]." (77) So Pharaoh pursued them with his soldiers, and there covered them from the sea that which covered them, (78) And Pharaoh led his people astray and did not guide [them]. (79) (Taha, 20: 77-79).

 

And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh and his soldiers pursued them in tyranny and enmity until, when drowning overtook him, he said, "I believe that there is no deity except that in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am of the Muslims." (90) Now? And you had disobeyed [Him] before and were of the corrupters? (91) So today We will save you in body that you may be to those who succeed you a sign. And indeed, many among the people, of Our signs, are heedless (92) (Younus, 10: 75-92). 

 

 

ٰ ﴿٦١﴾  ۖ ﴿٦٢﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٦٣﴾ ﴿٦٤﴾ ٰ ﴿٦٥﴾ ﴿٦٦ ( 52-66).

 

 

And We inspired to Moses, "Travel by night with My servants; indeed, you will be pursued." (52) Then Pharaoh sent among the cities gatherers (53) [And said], "Indeed, those are but a small band, (54) And indeed, they are enraging us, (55) And indeed, we are a cautious society... " (56) So We removed them from gardens and springs (57) And treasures and honorable station - (58) Thus. And We caused to inherit it the Children of Israel. (59) So they pursued them at sunrise. (60) And when the two companies saw one another, the companions of Moses said, "Indeed, we are to be overtaken!" (61) [Moses] said, "No! Indeed, with me is my Lord; He will guide me." (62) Then We inspired to Moses, "Strike with your staff the sea," and it parted, and each portion was like a great towering mountain. (63) And We advanced thereto the pursuers. (64) And We saved Moses and those with him, all together. (65) Then We drowned the others. (66) (Al-Shu'ara, 26: 52-66).

 

 

 

﴿١٣٦﴾  ۖ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ﴿١٣٧( 7: 136-137).

 

 

So We took retribution from them, and We drowned them in the sea because they denied Our signs and were heedless of them. (136) And We caused the people who had been oppressed to inherit the eastern regions of the land and the western ones, which We had blessed. And the good word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel because of what they had patiently endured. And We destroyed [all] that Pharaoh and his people were producing and what they had been building. (137) (Al-A'araf, 7: 136-137).  

 

 

 

Inability to Enter the Holy Land from the Coastal Region and Being Lost in Sinai for Forty Years

 

 

As the Children of Israel were safe after the death of the Pharaoh, they were instructed by Moussa to enter the Holy Land. However, they refused to obey him because they were afraid of the mighty people who were living there. They told him that they would not enter it until these mighty people leave it. Furthermore, they asked him to go together with his Lord to fight them, and that they would stay there waiting for that to happen. Allah, praise to Him, replied that they would be prohibited from entering it for forty years (Al-Maeda, 5: 20-26). 

 

 

ٰ ﴿٢٠

 

ٰ ﴿٢١

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿٢٢

 

 ۚ ﴿٢٣

 

ٰ  ۖ ﴿٢٤

 

 ۖ ﴿٢٥

 

 ۛ  ۛ  ۚ ﴿٢٦( 5: 20-26).

 

 

And [mention, O Muhammad], when Moses said to his people, "O my people, remember the favor of Allah upon you when He appointed among you prophets and made you possessors and gave you that which He had not given anyone among the worlds. (20)

 

O my people, enter the Holy Land which Allah has assigned to you and do not turn back [from fighting in Allah 's cause] and [thus] become losers." (21)

 

They said, "O Moses, indeed within it is a mighty (strong) people, and indeed, we will never enter it until they leave it; but if they leave it, then we will enter." (22)

 

Said two men from those who feared [to disobey] upon whom Allah had bestowed favor, "Enter upon them through the gate, for when you have entered it, you will be predominant. And upon Allah rely, if you should be believers." (23)

 

They said, "O Moses, indeed we will not enter it, ever, as long as they are within it; so go, you and your Lord, and fight. Indeed, we are remaining right here." (24)

 

[Moses] said, "My Lord, indeed I do not possess except myself and my brother, so part us from the defiantly disobedient people." (25)

 

[Allah] said, "Then indeed, it is forbidden to them for forty years [in which] they will wander throughout the land. So do not grieve over the defiantly disobedient people." (26) (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 20-26).

 

 

 

God's Favors to the Israelites in Sinai, Water, Cloud Shade, Manna and Quails, Sabbath Transgressors, and the Yellow Cow

 

 

 In the following verses from Al-Baqara and Al-A'araf Suras (Chapters) of the Holy Quran, Allah, praise to Him, reminds the children of Israel of His favors to them, which were met with their disobedience, more demands, and transgression! He reminded them that He rescued them from the Pharaoh's humiliation and punishment, saved them by splitting the sea for them and drowning the Pharaoh, providing them with water, shading them with clouds in the hot desert, providing them with manna and quails, and granting them a Covenant with Him. However, they demanded to have the same vegetables they used to eat in Egypt. Further, some of them transgressed on the Sabbath while they were prohibited to do so (Al-Baqara, 2: 47-61; Al-A'araf, 7: 160). 

 

In another favor, Allah, praise to Him, guided them to identify the perpetrator in a murder case, which they could not solve. He inspired Moussa, pbuh, to tell them to slaughter a cow and invite everybody to eat from its meat, then to hit the dead body with part of its meat or bone. When they did, the dead man spoke and told them about the name of the murderer. However, they gave Moussa a hard time by asking him many questions about which cow is the one God wants them to slaughter. If they were obedient, they could have slaughtered any cow but by asking many questions about it, they just made the job harder than it should be (Al-Baqara, 2: 67-74).

 

 

 

﴿٤٧﴾ ﴿٤٨﴾   ۚ ٰ ﴿٤٩﴾ ﴿٥٠( 2 : 47-50).

 

 ۚ ٰ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ  ۚ ٰ ۖ  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٦٠( 7: 160). 

 

ٰ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ  ۖ ﴿٦٠﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ٰ  ۚ  ۗ  ۗ ٰ  ۗ ٰ ﴿٦١( 2 : 60-61).

 

﴿٦٣﴾ ٰ ۖ ﴿٦٤﴾ ﴿٦٥﴾ ﴿٦٦( 2 : 63-66).

 

ٰ  ۖ  ۖ ﴿٦٧﴾  ۚ ٰ ۖ ﴿٦٨﴾  ۚ ﴿٦٩﴾ ﴿٧٠﴾  ۚ  ۚ ﴿٧١﴾  ۖ ﴿٧٢﴾  ۚ ٰ ٰ ﴿٧٣﴾ ٰ  ۚ  ۚ  ۚ  ۗ ﴿٧٤( 2 : 67-74).

 

 

O Children of Israel, remember My favor that I have bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the worlds. (47) And fear a Day when no soul will suffice for another soul at all, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be taken from it, nor will they be aided. (48) And [recall] when We saved your forefathers from the people of Pharaoh, who afflicted you with the worst torment, slaughtering your [newborn] sons and keeping your females alive. And in that was a great trial from your Lord. (49) And [recall] when We parted the sea for you and saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you were looking on. (50) (Al-Baqara, 2: 47-50).

 

And We divided them into twelve descendant tribes [as distinct] nations. And We inspired to Moses when his people implored him for water, "Strike with your staff the stone," and there gushed forth from it twelve springs. Every people knew its watering place. And We shaded them with clouds and sent down upon them manna and quails, [saying], "Eat from the good things with which We have provided you." And they wronged Us not, but they were [only] wronging themselves. (160) (Al-A'araf, 7: 160). 

 

And [recall] when Moses prayed for water for his people, so We said, "Strike with your staff the stone." And there gushed forth from it twelve springs, and every people knew its watering place. "Eat and drink from the provision of Allah, and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption." (60) And [recall] when you said, "O Moses, we can never endure one [kind of] food. So call upon your Lord to bring forth for us from the earth its green herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils and its onions." [Moses] said, "Would you exchange what is better for what is less? Go into [any] settlement and indeed, you will have what you have asked." And they were covered with humiliation and poverty and returned with anger from Allah [upon them]. That was because they [repeatedly] disbelieved in the signs of Allah and killed the prophets without right. That was because they disobeyed and were [habitually] transgressing. (61) (Al-Baqara, 2: 60-61).

 

And [recall] when We took your covenant, [O Children of Israel, to abide by the Torah] and We raised over you the mount, [saying], "Take what We have given you with determination and remember what is in it that perhaps you may become righteous." (63) Then you turned away after that. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have been among the losers. (64) And you had already known about those who transgressed among you concerning the Sabbath, and We said to them, "Be apes, despised." (65) And We made it a deterrent punishment for those who were present and those who succeeded [them] and a lesson for those who fear Allah. (66) (Al-Baqara, 2: 63-66). 

 

 

And [recall] when Moses said to his people, "Indeed, Allah commands you to slaughter a cow." They said, "Do you take us in ridicule?" He said, "I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant." (67) They said, "Call upon your Lord to make clear to us what it is." [Moses] said, "[Allah] says, 'It is a cow which is neither old nor virgin, but median between that,' so do what you are commanded." (68) They said, "Call upon your Lord to show us what is her color." He said, "He says, 'It is a yellow cow, bright in color - pleasing to the observers.' " (69) They said, "Call upon your Lord to make clear to us what it is. Indeed, [all] cows look alike to us. And indeed we, if Allah wills, will be guided." (70) He said, "He says, 'It is a cow neither trained to plow the earth nor to irrigate the field, one free from fault with no spot upon her.' " They said, "Now you have come with the truth." So they slaughtered her, but they could hardly do it. (71) And [recall] when you slew a man and disputed over it, but Allah was to bring out that which you were concealing. (72) So, We said, "Strike the slain man with part of it." Thus does Allah bring the dead to life, and He shows you His signs that you might reason. (73) Then your hearts became hardened after that, being like stones or even harder. For indeed, there are stones from which rivers burst forth, and there are some of them that split open and water comes out, and there are some of them that fall down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you do. (74)  (Al-Baqara, 2: 67-74).

 

 

 

The Tablets and the Calf Worship Ordeal

 

Allah, praise to Him, called Moussa to teach him for forty nights. Moussa asked his Lord to see Him but Allah told him that he cannot see Him. He told him that He would show Himself to the mountain and that if the mountain stays intact, then Moussa can see His Lord. But the mountain was destroyed and Moussa fell unconscious (Al-A'araf, 7: 138-143).

 

Allah, praise to Him, still assured Moussa, pbuh, that He favored him by speaking to him and by writing tablets for him, which included preaching and details to use them in guiding his people. But when Moussa returned with the Tablets, only after being absent for forty nights, he was shocked that the Israelites were worshipping a calf made of gold. Then, Moussa told them to repent to their Creator and kill themselves as punishment for what they did. However, Allah, praise to Him, accepted their repentance and forgave them (Al-A'araf, 7: 144-156; Al-Baqara, 2: 52-54; Taha, 20: 80-98).

 

 

 

ٰ ٰ  ۚ ٰ  ۚ ﴿١٣٨﴾ ٰ ﴿١٣٩﴾ ٰ ﴿١٤٠﴾  ۖ  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٤١﴾ ٰ  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٤٢﴾ ٰ  ۚ ٰ  ۚ ٰ ٰ  ۚ ﴿١٤٣( 7: 138-143).

 

ٰ ﴿١٤٤﴾  ۚ ﴿١٤٥﴾  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٤٦﴾  ۚ ﴿١٤٧﴾ ٰ  ۚ  ۘ ﴿١٤٨﴾ ﴿١٤٩( 7: 144-149).

 

ٰ ﴿٥١﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٢﴾ ﴿٥٣﴾ ٰ ٰ ٰ  ۚ ﴿٥٤﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٥٥﴾ ﴿٥٦﴾ ٰ ۖ  ۖ ٰ ﴿٥٧( 2 : 51-57). 

 

ٰ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ  ۚ ﴿١٥٠﴾  ۖ ﴿١٥١﴾  ۚ ٰ ﴿١٥٢﴾ ﴿١٥٣﴾  ۖ ﴿١٥٤﴾ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ  ۖ  ۖ  ۖ ﴿١٥٥﴾ ٰ  ۚ  ۖ  ۚ ﴿١٥٦﴾   ( 7: 150-156).

 

ٰ ﴿٨٣﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٨٤﴾ ﴿٨٥﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۚ  ۚ ﴿٨٦﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٨٧﴾ ٰ ٰ ٰ ٰ ﴿٨٨﴾ ﴿٨٩﴾  ۖ ٰ ﴿٩٠﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٩١﴾ ﴿٩٢﴾  ۖ ﴿٩٣﴾  ۖ ﴿٩٤﴾ ﴿٩٥﴾ ٰ ﴿٩٦﴾  ۖ  ۖ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٩٧﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۚ ﴿٩٨( 20: 83-98).

 

 

 

And We took the Children of Israel across the sea; then they came upon a people intent in devotion to [some] idols of theirs. They said, "O Moses, make for us a god just as they have gods." He said, "Indeed, you are a people behaving ignorantly. (138) Indeed, those [worshippers] - destroyed is that in which they are [engaged], and worthless is whatever they were doing." (139) He said, "Is it other than Allah I should desire for you as a god while He has preferred you over the worlds?" (140) And [recall, O Children of Israel], when We saved you from the people of Pharaoh, [who were] afflicting you with the worst torment - killing your sons and keeping your women alive. And in that was a great trial from your Lord. (141) And We made an appointment with Moses for thirty nights and perfected them by [the addition of] ten; so the term of his Lord was completed as forty nights. And Moses said to his brother Aaron, "Take my place among my people, do right [by them], and do not follow the way of the corrupters." (142) And when Moses arrived at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, "My Lord, show me [Yourself] that I may look at You." [Allah] said, "You will not see Me, but look at the mountain; if it should remain in place, then you will see Me." But when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He rendered it level, and Moses fell unconscious. And when he awoke, he said, "Exalted are You! I have repented to You, and I am the first of the believers." (143) (Al-A'araf, 7: 138-143). 

 

[Allah] said, "O Moses, I have chosen you over the people with My messages and My words [to you]. So take what I have given you and be among the grateful." (144) And We wrote for him on the tablets [something] of all things - instruction and explanation for all things, [saying], "Take them with determination and order your people to take the best of it. I will show you the home of the defiantly disobedient." (145) I will turn away from My signs those who are arrogant upon the earth without right; and if they should see every sign, they will not believe in it. And if they see the way of consciousness, they will not adopt it as a way; but if they see the way of error, they will adopt it as a way. That is because they have denied Our signs and they were heedless of them. (146) Those who denied Our signs and the meeting of the Hereafter - their deeds have become worthless. Are they recompensed except for what they used to do? (147) And the people of Moses made, after [his departure], from their ornaments a calf - an image having a lowing sound. Did they not see that it could neither speak to them nor guide them to a way? They took it [for worship], and they were wrongdoers. (148) And when regret overcame them and they saw that they had gone astray, they said, "If our Lord does not have mercy upon us and forgive us, we will surely be among the losers." (149) (Al-A'araf, 7: 144-149). 

 

 

And [recall] when We made an appointment with Moses for forty nights. Then you took [for worship] the calf after him, while you were wrongdoers. (51) Then We forgave you after that so perhaps you would be grateful. (52) And [recall] when We gave Moses the Scripture and criterion that perhaps you would be guided. (53) And [recall] when Moses said to his people, "O my people, indeed you have wronged yourselves by your taking of the calf [for worship]. So repent to your Creator and kill yourselves. That is best for [all of] you in the sight of your Creator." Then He accepted your repentance; indeed, He is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful. (54) And [recall] when you said, "O Moses, we will never believe you until we see Allah outright"; so the thunderbolt took you while you were looking on. (55) Then We revived you after your death that perhaps you would be grateful. (56) And We shaded you with clouds and sent down to you manna and quails, [saying], "Eat from the good things with which We have provided you." And they wronged Us not - but they were [only] wronging themselves. (57) (Al-Baqara, 2: 51-57).

 

 

And when Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved, he said, "How wretched is that by which you have replaced me after [my departure]. Were you impatient over the matter of your Lord?" And he threw down the tablets and seized his brother by [the hair of] his head, pulling him toward him. [Aaron] said, "O son of my mother, indeed the people oppressed me and were about to kill me, so let not the enemies rejoice over me and do not place me among the wrongdoing people." (150) [Moses] said, "My Lord, forgive me and my brother and admit us into Your mercy, for You are the most merciful of the merciful." (151) Indeed, those who took the calf [for worship] will obtain anger from their Lord and humiliation in the life of this world, and thus do We recompense the inventors [of falsehood]. (152) But those who committed misdeeds and then repented after them and believed - indeed your Lord, thereafter, is Forgiving and Merciful. (153) And when the anger subsided in Moses, he took up the tablets; and in their inscription was guidance and mercy for those who are fearful of their Lord. (154) And Moses chose from his people seventy men for Our appointment. And when the earthquake seized them, he said, "My Lord, if You had willed, You could have destroyed them before and me [as well]. Would You destroy us for what the foolish among us have done? This is not but Your trial by which You send astray whom You will and guide whom You will. You are our Protector, so forgive us and have mercy upon us; and You are the best of forgivers. (155) And decree for us in this world [that which is] good and [also] in the Hereafter; indeed, we have turned back to You." [Allah] said, "My punishment - I afflict with it whom I will, but My mercy encompasses all things." So I will decree it [especially] for those who fear Me and give zakah and those who believe in Our verses - (156) (Al-A'araf, 7: 150-156). 

 

O Children of Israel, We delivered you from your enemy, and We made an appointment with you at the right side of the mount, and We sent down to you manna and quails, (80) [Saying], "Eat from the good things with which We have provided you and do not transgress [or oppress others] therein, lest My anger should descend upon you. And he upon whom My anger descends has certainly fallen." (81) But indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver of whoever repents and believes and does righteousness and then continues in guidance. (82) [Allah] said, "And what made you hasten from your people, O Moses?" (83) He said, "They are close upon my tracks, and I hastened to You, my Lord, that You be pleased." (84) [Allah] said, "But indeed, We have tried your people after you [departed], and the Samiri has led them astray." (85) So Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved. He said, "O my people, did your Lord not make you a good promise? Then, was the time [of its fulfillment] too long for you, or did you wish that wrath from your Lord descend upon you, so you broke your promise [of obedience] to me?" (86) They said, "We did not break our promise to you by our will, but we were made to carry burdens from the ornaments of the people [of Pharaoh], so we threw them [into the fire], and thus did the Samiri throw." (87) And he extracted for them [the statue of] a calf which had a lowing sound, and they said, "This is your god and the god of Moses, but he forgot." (88) Did they not see that it could not return to them any speech and that it did not possess for them any harm or benefit? (89) And Aaron had already told them before [the return of Moses], "O my people, you are only being tested by it, and indeed, your Lord is the Most Merciful, so follow me and obey my order." (90) They said, "We will never cease being devoted to the calf until Moses returns to us." (91) [Moses] said, "O Aaron, what prevented you, when you saw them going astray, (92) From following me? Then have you disobeyed my order?" (93) [Aaron] said, "O son of my mother, do not seize [me] by my beard or by my head. Indeed, I feared that you would say, 'You caused division among the Children of Israel, and you did not observe [or await] my word.' " (94) [Moses] said, "And what is your case, O Samiri?" (95) He said, "I saw what they did not see, so I took a handful [of dust] from the track of the messenger and threw it, and thus did my soul entice me." (96) [Moses] said, "Then go. And indeed, it is [decreed] for you in [this] life to say, 'No contact.' And indeed, you have an appointment [in the Hereafter] you will not fail to keep. And look at your 'god' to which you remained devoted. We will surely burn it and blow it into the sea with a blast. (97) Your god is only Allah, except for whom there is no deity. He has encompassed all things in knowledge." (98) (Taha, 20: 80-98).

 

 

 

Moussa's Crash Course of Learning from Al-Khadr

 

 

Allah, praise to Him, wanted to teach Moussa, pbuh, a lesson that even if he was the Messenger of Allah, there are other worshippers of Allah on Earth who are more knowledgeable than him. He led him to meet with Al-Khadr, peace be to him (whose name is not mentioned in the verses), who told him up front that he may not be able to accompany him, to learn from him. He explained that Moussa may become impatient, as he watched him doing things which may appear outrageous for him.

 

 Al-Khadr agreed to allow Moussa to accompany him on condition that he would not ask about why he did what he did and stay patient until the actions would be explained to him. However, Moussa, pbuh, could not stay patient and asked him three times to explain his actions, which was a violation of the agreement. The three actions were making a hole in a ship to drown it on the shore before sailing, killing a young boy without an apparent reason, and building a fence for free in an inhospitable village.  At that moment, Al-Khadr told him that he could not accompany him anymore but explained to him the reasons for doing the three actions. The morale of the story is that we may get sad or upset about things which may happen to us or around us because we don't know if there's any good thing coming out of them  (Al-Kahf, 18: 60-82).

 

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿٦٠﴾ ﴿٦١﴾ ٰ ﴿٦٢﴾  ۚ ﴿٦٣﴾ ٰ  ۚ ٰ ﴿٦٤﴾ ﴿٦٥﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٦٦﴾ ﴿٦٧﴾ ٰ ﴿٦٨﴾ ﴿٦٩﴾ ٰ ﴿٧٠

 

ٰ  ۖ ﴿٧١﴾ ﴿٧٢﴾ ﴿٧٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٧٤ ﴿٧٥﴾  ۖ ﴿٧٦﴾ ٰ  ۖ ﴿٧٧﴾ ٰ  ۚ ﴿٧٨

 

﴿٧٩﴾ ﴿٨٠﴾ ﴿٨١﴾  ۚ  ۚ ٰ ﴿٨٢( 18: 60-82).

 

 

And [mention] when Moses said to his servant, "I will not cease [traveling] until I reach the junction of the two seas or continue for a long period." (60) But when they reached the junction between them, they forgot their fish, and it took its course into the sea, slipping away. (61) So when they had passed beyond it, [Moses] said to his boy, "Bring us our morning meal. We have certainly suffered in this, our journey, [much] fatigue." (62) He said, "Did you see when we retired to the rock? Indeed, I forgot [there] the fish. And none made me forget it except Satan - that I should mention it. And it took its course into the sea amazingly". (63) [Moses] said, "That is what we were seeking." So they returned, following their footprints. (64) And they found a servant from among Our servants to whom we had given mercy from us and had taught him from Us a [certain] knowledge. (65) Moses said to him, "May I follow you on [the condition] that you teach me from what you have been taught of sound judgment?" (66) He said, "Indeed, with me you will never be able to have patience. (67) And how can you have patience for what you do not encompass in knowledge?" (68) [Moses] said, "You will find me, if Allah wills, patient, and I will not disobey you in [any] order." (69) He said, "Then if you follow me, do not ask me about anything until I make to you about it mention." (70)

 

So they set out, until when they had embarked on the ship, Al-Khadr tore it open. [Moses] said, "Have you torn it open to drown its people? You have certainly done a grave thing." (71) [Al-Khadrr] said, "Did I not say that with me you would never be able to have patience?" (72) [Moses] said, "Do not blame me for what I forgot and do not cover me in my matter with difficulty." (73) So they set out, until when they met a boy, Al-Khadr killed him. [Moses] said, "Have you killed a pure soul for other than [having killed] a soul? You have certainly done a deplorable thing." (74) [ Al-Khadr] said, "Did I not tell you that with me you would never be able to have patience?" (75) [Moses] said, "If I should ask you about anything after this, then do not keep me as a companion. You have obtained from me an excuse." (76) So they set out, until when they came to the people of a town, they asked its people for food, but they refused to offer them hospitality. And they found therein a wall about to collapse, so al-Khidh r restored it. [Moses] said, "If you wished, you could have taken for it a payment." (77) [Al-Khadr] said, "This is parting between me and you. I will inform you of the interpretation of that about which you could not have patience. (78)

 

As for the ship, it belonged to poor people working at sea. So I intended to cause defect in it as there was after them a king who seized every [good] ship by force. (79) And as for the boy, his parents were believers, and we feared that he would overburden them by transgression and disbelief. (80) So we intended that their Lord should substitute for them one better than him in purity and nearer to mercy. (81) And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and there was beneath it a treasure for them, and their father had been righteous. So your Lord intended that they reach maturity and extract their treasure, as a mercy from your Lord. And I did it not of my own accord. That is the interpretation of that about which you could not have patience." (82) (Al-Kahf, 18: 60-82).

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

Moussa, peace be upon him (pbuh), is one of the five major Islamic Messengers of Allah (the others are Noah, Abraham, Jesus, and Muhammed, peace be upon all of them). His story of leading the Israelites out of Egypt, where they were persecuted, is intended to be a lesson to humanity that Allah, praise to Him, punishes the tyrants and helps the oppressed. The story also shows that despite the countless favors Allah, praise to Him, showered the Israelites with, they still were ungrateful, disobedient, and even turned to the worship of a golden calf.

 

The Holy Quran focuses on the lessons to be learned, that's why the several stories about Moussa and the Israelites were not mentioned in one chapter or in a chronological order. This author has attempted to present the verses which tell the stories in some kind of a sequence or chronological order for the the sole purpose of education about Moussa and the Israelites, from an Islamic perspective. 

 

Thus, this article attempts to tell the story of Moussa (pbuh) in a kind of sequence, starting from his birth, then his adoption and education in the Pharaoh's palace, then his running away from Egypt, settling down in Madyan, speaking with Allah and receiving his mission mandate, his encounter with the Pharaoh and demanding him to free the Children of Israel, the Pharaoh's refusal and God's signs to convince him, the Exodus and the miracle of splitting the sea, death of the Pharaoh by drowning and preserving his body as a lesson to humanity, the inability of the Israelites to enter the Holy Land from the coastal Palestinian region, loss in Sinai for forty years, the Tablets and the calf ordeal, and Moussa's crash course of learning from Al-Khadr. 

 

This author hopes that presenting all these verses from the Holy Quran about Moussa, pbuh, and the Israelites in one article will be helpful for readers in general as well as for imams and researchers, who look for an Islamic source about the topic, in particular. 

 

 

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Notes:

 

[1]  The Holy Quran teaches humanity through the life, experiences, and missions of the Messengers of Allah, particularly the five Messengers with Power (Ulul 'Azm). Nooh (Noah) was mentioned by name 43 times in the Holy Quran, Ibrahim (Abraham) was mentioned by name 69 times, Moussa (Moses) was mentioned by name 136 times, 'Eissa (Jesus) was mentioned by name 25 times, and Muhammed was mentioned by name 4 times as Muhammed and once as Ahmed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon all of them.

 

The Holy Quran Index in Arabic by Muhammed Fu-ad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr. 1406 (1986). The Arabic Title of the index is: Al-Muajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Qur-an Al-Kareem.

 

[2] The Holy Quran is God's Message of Guidance to Humanity. Therefore, it focuses on teaching humans about what's good for them during their life on Earth, which would help them have an everlasting life in Paradise in the Hereafter. Thus, the story of the Israelites is intended to be a lesson to humanity about God's countless favors to humans, some of whom may be ungrateful and disobedient.

 

 The Holy Quran does not mention the details about the Exodus of the Israelites, which sea they passed through, or which part of the Holy Land of Palestine they were instructed by Moussa, pbuh, to enter. However, from the verses together with the geographical facts, one can understand that the sea they crossed might have been the Gulf of Suez. The part of the Holy Land they couldn't enter might have been the coastal Palestinian region, starting at Rafah, south of present Gaza Strip. Then, the Israelites were lost in the Sinai desert for forty years. Finally, they reached the area east of the River Jordan, where Moussa, pbuh, died. It was his deputy, Yosha' Bin Noon, who led the Israelites westward towards the Holy Land of Palestine, through Aree'ha (Jericho).

 

 

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* Dr. Hassan Ali El-Najjar has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Georgia, USA. He is also a native speaker of Arabic.