Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity
By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
Table of Contents
II. Islam: The
Five Pillars of the Faith Structure
Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar
Table of Contents
II. Islam: The
Five Pillars of the Faith Structure
Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar
Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do
2. The La (No) Commands
3. The Imperative Commands
Articles with Islamic Perspective:
A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity
Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth
By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
First published on 4 Jumada Al-Thaniya, 1431, May 18, 2010
Revised During Shawwal 1438 - June 2018
Revised During Shawwal 1438 - June 2018
خَلِيفَةُ اللهِ عَلَى ألأرْضِ
خَلِيفَةُ اللهِ عَلَى ألأرْضِ
بقلم حسن علي النجار
بقلم حسن علي النجار
أعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
I seek refuge with God from the stoned Shaytan (Satan)
In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful
A necessary background for this Chapter can be found in Chapter 4, "Creation
and Evolution in the Holy Quran,"
which tells the Quran story
of how Allah (God), praise to Him, created life on Earth, let it evolve, and intervened to
improve His creation.
Thus, this Chapter is a continuation of the topic of creation and evolution but with focus on human beings, as they represent the climax of the stages of creation, fashioning in the right proportions, walking upright on two, imaging them in the best of images, and blowing of God’s Spirit in them. When Allah, praise to Him, felt that He taught humans enough, He decided to make them His deputies on Earth. When the angels expressed their unpleasant surprise, Allah brought chose Adam to represent humanity in a contest with them, to show them that human beings are worth of His decision of trusting them to rule the Earth. That story is the subject of the next Chapter 6, "Adam's Contest with the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise."
The verses related to the topics of Chapters 1, 2, and 3, like the
rest of the verses of the Holy Quran, are very concise and each
word contained in them has a specific meaning within a certain context but it may have
other meanings in other contexts. That is why the translation from
Arabic is not enough. It has to be explained further with facts from the
sciences, particularly from Anthropology and Biology in this case,
as well as with interpretations of the early prominent Islamic scholars, such
as Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi,
and Ibn Katheer.
Meaning of Human Caliphate on Earth
The starting point in this Chapter is the word “khalifa” (خَلِيفَةً۬ۖ), or caliph, which is mentioned in Verse 30 of Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2) of the Holy Quran. The root of the word is the Arabic verb “khalafa,” which means ”came after or succeeded.”
وَإِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةِ إِنِّى جَاعِلٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ خَلِيفَةً۬ۖ قَالُوٓاْ أَتَجۡعَلُ فِيہَا مَن يُفۡسِدُ فِيہَا وَيَسۡفِكُ ٱلدِّمَآءَ وَنَحۡنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَۖ قَالَ إِنِّىٓ أَعۡلَمُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ (البَقَرَة ، 2: 30).
And when your Lord said to the angels: I am making a caliph on the Earth. They said: Are You making therein one who corrupts it and sheds blood, while we hymn Your praise and sanctify You? He said: Surely I know that which you do not know (Al-Baqara, 2: 30).
The caliph (Al-Khalifa) is the ruler who comes after, or succeeds another ruler. The main meaning is that Allah, praise to Him, has chosen humans to be His successors, or caliphs, on Earth, ruling it according to His Law (Shari’a), and on His behalf.
Muslims used the word to describe the second head of the Islamic State, Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, referring to him as the Caliph of the Prophet, or his successor, as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was the first head of the Islamic State. Then, Muslims continued describing their rulers as such until the end of World War I, at the beginning of the twentieth century, when the Ottoman Caliphate was defeated by Western empires and was replaced by the Turkish and Arab secular states.
Another related meaning to the word “Khalifa” or “caliph” is that Allah, praise to Him, has willed that humans shall succeed each other in ruling the Earth, century after century, until He inherits this planet and all that is on it
In explaining the meaning of this verse, Al-Siyouti mentioned that Allah decided to make Adam as His caliph, successor, on Earth, to succeed Him in implementing His rules.
Al-Tabari used the same explanation, mentioning a narration by the Companions Ibn Mass’aud and Ibn Abbas. However, he added, as Ibn Katheer did, saying that the meaning of caliphate is the succession of a century of people by another.
Al-Qurtubi was clear in that the caliphate, or succession, is that of Adam succeeding God, praise to Him, on Earth. He cited Ibn Mass’aud and Ibn Abbas in saying that Adam, peace be to him, was God’s Caliph in implementing His rules and commands, because he was a Messenger of God, as the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, told the Companion Abi Dher, may Allah be pleased with him.
Honor, But Responsibility
God’s decision, or mandate, to make humans His successors (caliphs) on Earth, is a great honor to them. This honor was mentioned in several verses of the Holy Quran, such as in 2:30 (above) , 17: 70, and 17: 62.
وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا (الإسراء ، 17: 70).
And We have certainly honored the children of Adam, carried them on the land and sea, provided for them of the good things, and preferred them over much of what We have created, with [definite] preference (Al-Issra, 17: 70).
قَالَ أَرَءَيۡتَكَ هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى ڪَرَّمۡتَ عَلَىَّ لَٮِٕنۡ أَخَّرۡتَنِ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ لَأَحۡتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬ (الإسرَاء ، 17: 62).
He said: Do You see this whom You have honored above me, if You reprieve me until the Day of Rising (Resurrection), I will seize his offspring, except a few (Al-'Issra, 17: 62).
Despite that the mandate has been a great honor to humans, it has been associated with a grave responsibility at the same time. It is true that they lived up to God’s expectations in many centuries and stages of their history. However, they failed in many other occasions and times. They did injustice to themselves and to the planet they have been entrusted to rule over and care about.
The very characteristics of success that humans possess could be
used in bad ways, as a result of following Satan and his wicked
ways, which took humans away from the right path of God.
Verse 72 of Surat Al-A'hzab (Chapter 33) of the Holy Quran tells us that the Heavens, the Earth, and the Mountains (as solid and strong as they are) could not carry God’s mandate and the responsibility associated with it. However, humans were happy to carry it, or accept it, out of ignorance about the burdens of the responsibility associated with God’s mandate for them to become His successors on Earth.
We offered the trust (of succession, caliphate) to
the heavens and the Earth and the mountains, but
they refused to undertake it, and were afraid of it.
And (but) the human (being) undertook it (because)
he was unjust (to himself) and ignorant (of the
consequences of his undertaking)
We offered the trust (of succession, caliphate) to the heavens and the Earth and the mountains, but they refused to undertake it, and were afraid of it. And (but) the human (being) undertook it (because) he was unjust (to himself) and ignorant (of the consequences of his undertaking) (Al-A'hzab, 33: 72).
Thus, God’s trust in his human creation to be His caliphs on Earth was based on His knowledge of them as capable of receiving His mandate of ruling Earth, and living up to the responsibilities associated with that mandate. In particular, Allah, praise to Him, tells us about some of the characteristics that made humans trustworthy of His mandate. These are represented by their ability to learn, to build, and to choose.
Human Ability to Learn
Allah, praise to Him, made humans His caliphs on Earth, after they proved to Him their ability to learn, to accumulate knowledge, to process that knowledge, to make rules and laws on the basis of their knowledge, and to make use of what they have learned.
Allah, praise to Him, facilitated for humans to learn by making Earth abundant in food and resources and protected it from harmful cosmic effects. He surrounded it with several layers of atmospheres as protection and made its distance from the Sun ideal for life to flourish and progress. Thus, humans have enjoyed peaceful and comfortable conditions in most regions of Earth, which freed them to learn.
Allah, the Compassionate, praise to Him, never left His creation completely alone or lonely to despair. He would intervene to improve His creation with fashioning in the right proportions and best imaging. He also instructed them to learn, use their knowledge for their benefit, and guided them to how they can achieve that.
God’s first word and command to humans, delivered through the Senior Angel, Jibril (Gabriel), peace be to him, to the Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, peace and blessings be upon him (pbbuh) was "Read" (اقْرَأْ). He actually repeated it three times to confirm its importance to humanity, as stated in the first five verses of Surat Al-‘Alaq (Chapter 96) of the Holy Quran.
اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ ﴿١﴾ خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ ﴿٢﴾ اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ ﴿٣﴾ الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ ﴿٤﴾ عَلَّمَ الْإِنسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ ﴿٥﴾ (العلق ، 96: 1-5).
Read! In the name of your Lord, Who created, (1)
Created the human (being), out of an 'alaqa (leech-like embryo), (2)
Read! And your Lord is the Most Bountiful, (3) He Who taught with the pen, (4)
(He) taught the human (being) that which he did not know (Al-‘Alaq, 96: 1-5).
There are many verses in the Holy Quran, which deal with learning, knowledge, and
look at some of them, we
find that Allah, praise to Him, states that He and His senior angel, Jibril, peace to him, are involved in teaching humans,
as mentioned in verses 55: 1-5, 2: 239, and 53: 45. The teaching
happens directly, as in the case of Jibril teaching the Messengers of
Allah, and indirectly by facilitating learning to the average person,
as in the case of the scribe mentioned in Verse 2: 282.
الرَّحْمَـٰنُ ﴿١﴾ عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ ﴿٢﴾ خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ ﴿٣﴾ عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ ﴿٤﴾ (الرَّحْمَـٰن ، 55: 1-4).
فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّـهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ (البقرة ، 2: 239).
إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ ﴿٤﴾ عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَىٰ ﴿٥﴾
، 53: 4-5).
م ، 53: 4-5).
وَلَا يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَن يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ اللَّـهُ (البقرة ، 2: 282).
The Most Merciful, (1) has taught the Quran, (2) created
the human (being), (3) taught him speech
(Al-Rahman, 55: 1-4).
The Most Merciful, (1) has taught the Quran, (2) created the human (being), (3) taught him speech (Al-Rahman, 55: 1-4).
Remember Allah, as He has taught you that which you did not know (Al-Baqara, 2: 239).
It is an inspiration sent down (to him),(4) taught by one mighty in power (Jibril) (Al-Najm, 53: 4-5).
A scribe should not refuse to write as Allah has taught him (Al-Baqara, 2: 282).
Human Tendency to Construct
God’s trust in His creation of human beings to be His caliphs on Earth was further based on His knowledge of them as being capable of building, or construction. He expected humans to be creative, in continuously improving their conditions on Earth, reaching the stage of civilization, as Ibn Khaldoun described it, using the Quran term of ‘Amarah, which means construction or civilization. 
Verse 30: 9 is an invitation for humans to excavate the previous civilizations, to learn lessons from them. While this is a command for humans to study historical and pre-historical sites to learn about previous human civilizations, it's also a direct reference to the human tendency of construction.
أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَثَارُوا الْأَرْضَ وَعَمَرُوهَا أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا عَمَرُوهَا (الروم ، 30: 9).
Have they not travelled on the land to see what was the sequel of those who were before them? They were much stronger than them, and they dug the earth and built upon it more than these have built (Al-Room, 30: 9).
There is no doubt that construction benefited from the other two human characteristics of learning and choice. The three qualities interacted with each other producing this wonderful human phenomenon, which has pleased God, Who did bet on to do so, and to be thus, in front of His angels.
Verses 11: 61 and 9: 18 include references to the human construction, as follows:
ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمْ صَالِحًا ۚ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ مَا
لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ ۖ هُوَ أَنشَأَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ
، 11: 61).
إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّـهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلَّا اللَّـهَ (التوبة ، 9: 18).
And to the Thamud People (We sent) their brother Salih. He said: O my people! Worship Allah, you have no other god but Him. He produced you from the Earth and (enabled) you to construct therein (Hood, 11: 61).
The mosques of Allah are constructed, visited, and maintained by whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, and by whoever observes the prayer and pays zakat (the poor-due) and fears none except Allah (Al-Tawba, 9: 18 ).
Human Freedom of Choice
God’s trust in His human creation to be His caliphs on Earth was also based on His knowledge of them as being capable to choose, unlike angels who are obedient to their Creator by creation and design, as we learn from Verse 66: 6.
لَا يَعْصُونَ اللَّه
مَا أَمَرَهُمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ (التَّحْرِيم
، 66: 6).
لَا يَعْصُونَ اللَّه مَا أَمَرَهُمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ (التَّحْرِيم ، 66: 6).
(The angels) do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do what they are commanded (Al-Tahreem, 66: 6).
Humans have been created to be capable to choose between right and wrong as well as obedience and disobedience to their Creator, as we learn from Verses 76: 3, 89: 8-10, and 91: 7-10.
إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَإِمَّا كَفُورًا
، 76: 3).
نَجْعَل لَّهُ عَيْنَيْنِ ﴿٨﴾ وَلِسَانًا وَشَفَتَيْنِ ﴿٩﴾
وَهَدَيْنَاهُ النَّجْدَيْنِ ﴿١٠﴾
، 89: 8-10).
وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا ﴿٧﴾ فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا ﴿٨﴾ قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا ﴿٩﴾ وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا (الشمس ، 91: 7-10).
We guided him (the human being) to the path (of choice, to see if he chooses to be) grateful or disbelieving (Al-Insan, 76: 3).
Have We not made for him two eyes? (8) And a tongue, and two lips? (9) And guided him to the two paths (to choose from)? (Al-Balad, 89: 8-10).
By the (human) self, and how He fashioned it, (7) by inspiring it to (to know the paths of) disobedience and piety. (8) Truly, whoever keeps it pure will succeed, (9) And whoever corrupts it will fail (10) (Al-Shams, 91: 7-10). 
Allah, praise to Him, wanted to enjoy seeing his human creation obey Him and observe His commands by choice. Thus, when He told His angels that He would make humans His caliphs on Earth, they were surprised because of their knowledge of human corruption and violence (blood-shedding). But Allah, praise to Him, answered them saying that He knew what they did not know, as stated in 2:30, mentioned above. He knew that as some humans may choose to corrupt and shed blood, others will choose to obey His commands and do good deeds to themselves, to others, and to their Planet..
As the above verses tell us that humans are born with the ability to identify what’s right and what’s wrong as well as the ability to choose which of the two paths they are going to follow, a well-known 'Hadith by Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, also mentions that an angel blows part of God's spirit into the fetus in its mother's womb. This means that the human freedom of choice is not learned. Rather, it's a gift from the Creator, praise to Him. 
Responsibilities of God’s caliphs on Earth
The following fourteen verses of the Holy Quran associate the human caliphate of God on Earth with heavy responsibilities.
First, Allah, praise to Him, mentions in the Holy Quran that the caliphate or succession of humans on Earth is a test for them, as He wants to see whether they are thankful or ungrateful for the blessings He bestowed on them, as in Verses 6: 165, 10: 14, and 7: 129.
وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ الْأَرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (الأنعام ، 6: 165).
And it is He Who has made you successors (caliphs) of the Earth and raised some of you above others in ranks, so that He tests you of what He has given you; surely your Lord is quick in punishment, and surely He is Forgiving, (and) Merciful (Al-Ana'am, 6: 165).
ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ لِنَنظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ (يونس ، 10: 14).
Then We made you successors (caliphs) on the Earth, after them, to see how you would act (Younus, 10: 14).
قَالُوا أُوذِينَا مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَأْتِيَنَا وَمِن بَعْدِ مَا جِئْتَنَا ۚ قَالَ عَسَىٰ رَبُّكُمْ أَن يُهْلِكَ عَدُوَّكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ (الأعراف ، 7: 129).They said: We had been hurt before and after you came to us. He said: May your Lord destroy your enemy and make you successors (caliphs) on the Earth, so He sees how you act (Al-‘Araf, 7: 129).
Second, belief and faith in the Creator is a human responsibility, as He willed for them to be His deputies on Earth, as mentioned in verses 57: 7 and 24: 55.
آمِنُوا بِاللَّـهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَأَنفِقُوا مِمَّا جَعَلَكُم مُّسْتَخْلَفِينَ فِيهِ (الحديد ، 57: 7).
Believe in Allah and His Messenger, and spend of that which He has made you (His) successors (caliphs) on (Al-Hadeed, 57: 7).
وَعَدَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ (النور ، 24: 55).
Allah has promised those who believe among you to make them successors on Earth, as He made successors of those before them (Al-Noor, 24: 55).
Third, being caliphs to God, wealthy people are responsible for spending the wealth assigned to them on the good aspects of life in society, as mentioned in Verse 57: 7.
Fourth, being caliphs to God, people are responsible for doing good deeds, helping other people, as mentioned in Verse 24: 55.
Fifth, humans need to acknowledge God’s favors to them, which should prompt them to thank Him for the good body He fashioned for them and for making them His Caliphs on Earth, as stated in Verse 7: 96.
وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ جَعَلَكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ مِن بَعْدِ قَوْمِ نُوحٍ
وَزَادَكُمْ فِي الْخَلْقِ بَسْطَةً ۖ فَاذْكُرُوا آلَاءَ اللَّـهِ
، 7: 69).
And reflect (think about) that He made you successors (caliphs) after the people of Noah, and made you exceeding them in stature. Then, remember the favors of Allah, so that you may prosper (Al-‘Araf, 7: 96).
Allah, praise to Him, also mentions that oppressors and those who rule with injustice, away from God’s commands will be replaced by others, who are better than them, as we read in Verses 6: 133 and 11: 57.
وَرَبُّكَ الْغَنِيُّ ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ ۚ إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِن بَعْدِكُم مَّا يَشَاءُ كَمَا أَنشَأَكُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ (الأنعام ، 6: 133).
Your Lord is Self-Sufficient, (the Lord) of Mercy. If He will, He can remove you and make successors (caliphs) after you whom He wills, as He made you from offspring of other people (Al-Ana’am, 6: 13).
فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُم مَّا أُرْسِلْتُ بِهِ إِلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَيَسْتَخْلِفُ رَبِّي قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ وَلَا تَضُرُّونَهُ شَيْئًا (هود ، 11: 57).
(Prophet Hood said): If they turn away (from what you told them, tell them) I have conveyed the Message with which I was sent to you, and my Lord will make another people to succeed you, and you will not harm Him anything (Hood, 11: 57).
the following verses of the Holy Quran associate the
of God on Earth with believing in Allah , m d ,
n , r ,
p , and p
mentioning His blessings,
doing good deeds
, not corrupting the Earth
, ruling people with justice and according to God’s commands
, and piety.
فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَمَن مَّعَهُ فِي الْفُلْكِ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ خَلَائِفَ وَأَغْرَقْنَا الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا (يونس ، 10: 73).
They rejected him, so We saved him and those with him in the ship, and made them successors (caliphs), and We drowned those who rejected Our revelations (Younus, 10: 73). .
وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ جَعَلَكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ مِن بَعْدِ عَادٍ وَبَوَّأَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِن سُهُولِهَا قُصُورًا وَتَنْحِتُونَ الْجِبَالَ بُيُوتًا ۖ فَاذْكُرُوا آلَاءَ اللَّـهِ وَلَا تَعْثَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ (الأعراف ، 7: 74).
Reflect (think about) that He made you successors (caliphs) after (the people of) 'Ad, and settled you on the Earth so that you could construct on its plains palaces, and carve dwellings out of mountains. So remember the favors of Allah, and do not act on the Earth as corruptors (Al-'Araf, 7:47).
يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُم
بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن
، 38: 26).
O Dawood (David)! We have made you as a successor (caliph) on earth, so judge among people rightly, and do not follow desire, (which may) misguide away from the path of Allah (Saad, 38: 26).
هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ فَمَن كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُ ۖ (فاطر ، 35: 39).
He is Who has made you successors (caliphs) on the Earth. So he who disbelieves, his disbelief will be on him (He will bear the consequences) (Fater, 35: 39).
أَمَّن يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ الْأَرْضِ ۗ أَإِلَـٰهٌ مَّعَ اللَّـهِ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ (النمل ، 27: 62).
Or, Who listens to the distressed when he calls on Him, and Who relieves the suffering, and makes you successors (caliphs) on the Earth? (Are you still taking) another god with Allah? It is little that you reflect on (Al-Naml, 27: 62).
قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ اسْتَعِينُوا بِاللَّـهِ وَاصْبِرُوا ۖ إِنَّ الْأَرْضَ لِلَّـهِ يُورِثُهَا مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۖ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ (الأعراف ، 7: 128).
Moussa (Moses) said to his people: Seek help from Allah and endure. The Earth is Allah's. He gives it as inheritance to whom He wills of his worshippers, and the sequel is for the pious (Al-‘Araf, 7: 128).=================================================================================================================================
 This author consulted with several translations of the Holy Quran verses, particularly those of Saheeh International and Yusuf Ali, published at www.tanzil.net. However, the translation of meaning of verses in this Chapter, as well as in the book as a whole, is his sole responsibility.
The complete works of these three great Islamic scholars, who interpreted the Holy Quran in different centuries are published on paper, as well as online, such as on the official website of the Saudi Ministry of Islamic Affairs, at: http://quran.al-islam.com/. Their major works are referenced in the first Foot Note of Chapter 3.
 The Holy Quran Index in Arabic by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr. 1406 (1986). The Arabic Title of the index is: “Al-Mu’ajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Quran Al-Kareem,” Pages 469-480. In particular, there are about 26 verses, on pages 474-475, which are directly related to human learning and God’s influence in that process.
The Holy Quran search, at www.tanzil.net, yields 49 pages of verses including the Arabic root verb "to know" (عَلِمَ) and its derivatives.
 Abdul Rahman Bin Khaldoun was an Arab sociologist who lived in Andalusia, North Africa, and Egypt. He was born in Tunis, in 732 H (1332 AD) and died in Cairo in 808 H (1406 AD). He wrote his famous “Introduction to Sociology,” about five centuries before Auguste Compte started modern sociology in France. in the 19th century.
Ibn Khaldoun was not alone in equating construction with civilization. Modern anthropologists have also acknowledged that fact, associating human civilization with intensive agriculture, which was also associated with construction of temples, palaces, theaters, dams, canals, roads, and huge monuments and statues. This construction was not possible without writing languages and developing various sciences, hence civilization.
 For a discussion about the human self, see Chapter I.9, "Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective."
 This 'Hadith, which mentions blowing part of God's spirit into the fetus in its mother's womb, is narrated by Ibn Mass’oud. It is agreed upon by various Sunna books and numbered 396 in Riyadh Al-Sali'heen by Imam Al-Nawawi. The Arabic text of the ‘Hadith is as follows:
عن ابن مسعود ، رضي الله عنه ، قال: حدثنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وهو الصادق المصدوق:
"إن أحدكم يجمع خلقه في بطن أمه أربعين يوما نطفة ، ثم يكون علقة مثل ذلك ، ثم يكون مضغة مثل ذلك ، ثم يرسل الملك ، فينفخ فيه الروح ، ويؤمر بأربع كلمات:
بكتب رزقة ، وأجله ، وعمله ، وشقي أو سعيد.
فو الذي لا إله غيره إن أحدكم ليعمل عمل أهل الجنة حتى ما يكون بينه وبينها إلا ذراع ، فيسبق عليه الكتاب ، فيعمل بعمل أهل النار، فيدخلها ، وإن أحدكم ليعمل بعمل
أهل النار حتى ما يكون بينه وبينها إلا ذراع ، فيسبق عليه الكتاب فيعمل بعمل أهل الجنة فيدخلها." (متفق عليه ، رقم 396 في رياض الصالحين).
About the Author and the Book:
* The author
of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Master’s degree
in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine, in
1369 Hijriya (1950), but he has been living in the United
States since 1986.
of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi,
and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of
this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of
the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions'
interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic
يُرِيدُونَ لِيُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّـهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَاللَّـهُ مُتِمُّ نُورِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ (الصف ، 61: 8).
They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8).
Opinions expressed in various sections are the
sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Dalton