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Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity  

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar   

Table of Contents   

Part I. Introduction: Basic Information   

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction     

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan
3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity
  Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran   

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth  

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise   

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves? 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical in Islamic Teachings    

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective  

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Quran   

Part II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure   

1. Islamic Proclamation of Faith  

2.  Performing Islamic Prayers   

3. Giving Zakat (Charity)   

4. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims   

5. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam  

Part III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar   

1. Allah   

2. Angels

3. Noo'h, Noah     

4. Ibrahim, Abraham  

5. Moussa, Moses  

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ  

7. Muhammed   

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

Part IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds   

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran     

2. The La (No) Commands  

3. The Imperative Commands  


Articles with Islamic Perspective:  

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective   

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture   

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days
Food Islamic Rules and Teachings   

Are Muslim women second-class citizens   

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with   

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010  

Links to Islamic Topics 2007  

Links to Islamic topics 2006 

Links to Islamic topics 2005  

Links to Islamic topics 2004 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002 Links to Islamic topics







God's Message of Guidance to Humanity




Verses About Creation in the Holy Quran 


By Hassan Ali El-Najjar


Started on 18th of Shawwal, 1428 - October 29, 2007


Revised on  July 10, 2012




1428 - 2007


  1433 - 2012





ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

I seek refuge with God from the stoned Shaitan (Satan)










Readers find below 37 main verses which the author could identify in the Holy Quran about creation. These verses tell the story of God's creation of life on planet Earth, with particular attention to the creation of humans. This effort aims at educating readers about the scientific evidence, in the area of anthropology, that God exists and that the Holy Quran is His Message to humanity. No human being could have known the information involved in the meaning of these verses, neither at the time of revelation, more than 1400 years ago, nor centuries after, until the science of anthropology was established in the second half of the 19th century.  


   ( 6: 38).


We have not neglected a thing in the Book (Al-Ana'am, 6: 38)..





In Verses 19-20 of Surat Al-'Ankaboot (Chapter 29) of the Holy Quran, Allah, praise to Him, has commanded us to travel through the Earth to  study how He began His creation, in order to explain to us how He can repeat it again in the Hereafter.


 ۚ ٰ ( 29: 19).


 ۚ  ۚ ٰ ﴿ 29: 20.



Do they not see how Allah begins the Creation, then repeats it? That is easy for Allah (to do) (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 19).


Say: "Travel through the Earth and see how He began the Creation. Then, Allah makes the latter Creation.  Allah is capable of (doing) everything"  (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 20).



ٱٓ ٰۡ ۡ۬ ( 51: 47).


We have built the heaven with (the power of Our) hands, and We are expanding (it) (Al-Dhariyat, Chapter  51, Verse 47).

In this verse, God Almighty, praise to Him, is telling us that He created heaven and He is expanding it. Modern cosmology discovered this fact of the expanding universe in the twentieth century. Like in the case of every verse below, readers will discover that these facts were mentioned in the Holy Quran 1429 years ago, in order to confirm to us humans that the Holy Quran is God's message to humanity, and consequently to follow the  teachings of the Holy Book, in order for us to live happily in this life and enjoy an everlasting happiness in the hereafter.


  ( 21: 30).


Have not those who disbelieve seen (known) that the heavens and the Earth were of one connected entity, then We separated them (from each other), and We made every living thing out of water? Will they not then believe? (Al-Anbiya', 21: 30).


The first part of Verse 30: 21 tells us that the beginning of creation, Allah praise to Him caused the separation of parts from the original single entity, or what cosmologists describe as the big bang. 


The second part of the Verse is about the relationship between life and water. It basically points to the fact that life depends on the availability of water, which has become a scientific given.


Water covers about seventy percent of the surface of the Earth, which has provided it with the essential requirement of life.



 ( 4: 1).

O humans! Be pious (careful of your duty) to your Lord, Who created you from a single self (soul), and from it He created its mate, and from them He has spread a multitude of men and women (Al-Nissa, 4: 1).


The same meaning is expressed in other verses, such as 30.21, as follows:



 ( 30: 21).

And of His signs: He has created for you from yourselves mates with whom you find rest , and He ordained between you love and mercy . In this, there are signs for people who ponder (Al-Room, 30: 21).


 ( 24: 45).


Allah has created every animal out of water . Of them (is a category which) walks upon its belly,  (another which) walks upon two legs, and ( a third which) walks upon four . Allah creates what He wills. Allah is Able to do everything (he wants)  (Al-Noor, 24: 45).



In this verse, Allah (Praise to Him) tells us that animals were originally created out of water. Some of these animals walk on their belly (like snakes), others walk on two legs or on four legs.

We know that almost all animals except kangaroos (and penguins) walk on four legs. However, for Prophet Muhammed (Peace and blessings be upon him) and old world humans at the time of revelation (1429 years ago), they did not know that there was an animal which walked on two legs in Australia. Only God knew that and has told us about it, as another piece of evidence that He is the author of the Holy Quran, not any human being.


( 32: 7).



(Allah is He) who has made everything He created better, and He began the creation of the human (being) out of clay (Al-Sajda, 7: 32).



In this verse, we are told that Allah (Praise to Him) began the creation of human beings out of clay, but that was the beginning, then He made His creation better.

The most relevant word in this verse is "began" (bada-a), which tells us clearly that creation happened in a process that had a beginning, not just at once. The same meaning is found in Verse 15, Chapter 50.

ٱۡۡ ٱۡۚ ۡ ۡ ۡ۬ ۡ ۡ۬ ( 50: 15).


Were We then tired with the first creation? (No), they (nonbelievers) are in confusion about a new creation (resurrection) (Qaf, 50: 15).


This verse confirms the meaning included in 32.7, saying that there was a first creation, the creation of life (Footnote # 1).


( 32: 8).


Then He made his offspring from a quintessence of despised water (coming out of parents) (Al-Sajda, 32: 8).



  ( 32: 9).


Then He shaped him (in due proportions), and breathed in him of His Spirit, and made for you hearing, sight, and hearts; little thanks you give (Al-Sajda, 32: 9).



ۡ ۡ ۡ  ( 71: 14).

He has created you in diverse (and successive) stages (Noo'h, 71: 14).




( 6: 2).


He is Who has created you from clay, then he spent a term of time (away from you), and (it is) a specific term he determined. Yet, you doubt (His ability) (Al-Ana'am, 6: 2).



The following verses provide more details about the original environment of creation of life and how it evolved after that.


( 15: 26).


We created the human being from stinking, smooth, (and wet) clay (Al-'Hijr, 15: 26).



ٱ ۢ ٱۡ ۬  ( 71: 17).


And Allah has caused you to grow out of the earth like plants (Noo'h, 71: 17).



The stages of creation, from soil first and watery genetic materials from parents later, are mentioned in the following verse (18.7).



( 18: 37).



His companion said to him, while arguing with him: Have you disbelieved in Him Who created you of the earth soil, then of a nutfah (union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg), then fashioned you into a man? (Al-Kahf, 18: 37).


The two stages of creation are also mentioned in the following verse (35.11).


( 35: 11).



Allah created you from the earth soil, then from a nutfah (union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg), then He made you pairs (or mates: males and females) (Fatir, 35: 11).


More specific description of the kind of clay the first creation happened, as was mentioned above in Verse 15.26, is also mentioned in the following verse (55.14) but with adding a new word, pottery.


( 55: 14).


He created man of stinking clay, (wet and smooth like the one used in making) pottery (Al-Ra'hman, 55: 14).


The stages of creation are also mentioned in the following verse (40.67) but with more specific description of the main stages of the development of a fetus in the womb, from nutfah to alaqah, and finally to a complete baby.


( 40: 67).



He is Who created you from the earth soil , then from a nutfah (union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg), then from a leech (a fertilized egg sticking to the womb sucking nutrients from it like a leach), then He brings you out (of the womb) as a child (Ghafir, 40: 67).


A nutfah is the Arabic word for a fertilized egg, a zygote, or the union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg.


An alaqa is the Arabic word for a leech. In this case, it refers to a fertilized egg sticking to the womb sucking nutrients from it like a leech.

Other related verses (23.12-14) mention other main stages in the development of the fetus in the womb, the mudgha, bone, and flesh stages.


ۡ ۡ ٱٰۡ ٰ۬ ۬ (١٢)


ٰۡ ۡ۬ ۬ ۬ (١٣)


ۡ ٱۡ ۬ ۡ ٱۡ ۡ۬ ۡ ٱۡۡ ٰ۬ ۡ ٱٰۡ ۡ۬ ٰۡ ۡ ۚ ٱ ۡ  ٱٰۡ (١٤)   ( 23: 12-14).


23.12-14  We created the human being from a product of wet earth; (12)


Then, We placed it as a nutfah (fertilized egg) in a safe (deep) lodging; (13)


Then, We  created the nutfah into an alaqa (leech).


Then, We created the alaqa into mudghah (a little lump, like a chewed substance).


Then, We created the mudghah into bones.


Then, We clothed the bones with flesh.


Then, We produced it (the human being) as another creation.


So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators! (14). (Al-Mu'-minoon, 23: 12-14).


Only recently in human history, biological and medical researchers could reach such accurate knowledge about the major stages of the fetus development, as described in the verses above.


This description was revealed to the Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, 1429 years ago. There was no way for an illiterate man in Arabia to know about the human creation by himself and with this accuracy.


This is one of the Holy Qur'an miracles, giving evidence that the author of this book could be nobody else except God, the Creator, praise to Him.


The objective is to assure people with reasoning that the Holy Qur'an is God's message to humanity. When they are sure, then they follow His teachings, which are designed for their good in this life and in the hereafter.


For more information about describing stages of the human embryo development, see:

The Quran on Human Embryonic Development 


( 82: 7).



It is He Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and made you with the right proportions (straightened you up, to walk in an upright position)  (Al-Infitar, 82: 7).


This verse may refer to three main stages of the creation of human beings. The first was God's creation of life (The Arabic verb khlaqa, created). The second was fashioning His creation properly (The Arabic verb sawwa). The third was enabling humans to walk in an upright way  (The Arabic verb 'adala, ).


Ibn Katheer explains this verse using a Hadeeth from the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him (Volume 4: 267). The Hadeeth tells us that Allah (God) created humans in the best image and the right proportion and made them walk in a balanced way, in an upright position, which allowed them to walk between the two cold times or places.


The Prophet's, pbbuh, mentioning of walking between the two cold times or places maybe a reference to the fact that walking on two legs allowed humans to earn their living, explore, migrate, and ultimately live in all regions of the earth. 


The word "bardayn" in the Hadith may refer to the two prayer times of fajr (dawn) and 'asr (mid-after noon). It may also refer to the two seasons of summer and winter, if it is spelled as "burdayn," as it refers to two types of clothes worn in different seasons.


The general meaning is that walking on two legs enabled humans to earn their living in an efficient way during their day or their year.


If the word in the Hadith is spelled as "bardayn," it may also refer to the two cold areas, the North Pole and the South Pole. Thus, the general meaning is that walking on two legs enabled humans to earn a living, travel and live in various regions between the two cold areas or poles (See Arabic text of the Hadith and its interpretations in Footnote # 2).



( 82: 8).


In whatever form (image) He willed, He put you together (assembled you)  (Al-Infitar, 82: 8).


Bin Katheer (Volume 4: 267-268) mentions a Hadeeth explaining this verse, particularly the Arabic verb rakkaba, by saying that the fertilized egg carries all the genetic characteristics of humans all the way to the first creation, including Adam.



( 7: 11).


And We created you (humans, in plural form), then fashioned you (made you in the image you are, also addressing humans in plural form), then said to the angels: Prostrate to Adam! And they prostrated, all except Iblis (another name for Satan), who was not of those who made prostration  (Al-A'araf, 7: 11).



( 14: 19).



Have you not seen that Allah has created the heavens and the earth with the right proportions? If He wills, He can remove you and bring ( in your place ) a new creation  (Ibrahim, 14: 19).


There are two meanings relevant to the subject of this article in the above verse. First, Allah praise to Him has created heavens and Earth with the right proportions, which is a reference to the perfect system of interrelationships between components of the universe.


The Earth is placed in a perfect position and distance from the sun in order for life to flourish and continue. Proximity and distance from the closest point to the sun on Earth (the equatorial region) has led to the variation of environments and climates, leading to the wonderful variation in the fauna and flora in the biosphere. The proportion of water in the planet (70%) is equal to the proportion of water in the human body. The balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide and the formation of the ozone, which protects Earth from the ultraviolet cosmic radiation, all are examples of the right proportions of creation mentioned in the above verse.


The second meaning is related to God's threat that He can cause humans to disappear if they disobey Him and bring a new creation, which is better. Natural scientists may support the meaning of this verse that there were many now-extinct species, which once dominated Earth, like dinosaurs.



( 10: 92).


Today, We save you (Pharaoh of Egypt) through saving your body so that you may be a sign for those after you . Lo! Most people are heedless of Our signs (Younus, 10: 92).


This verse is part of the story of Moussa (Moses), peace be upon him,  and the Pharaoh of Egypt, which is told in several chapters of the Holy Qur'an, including Younus, Chapter 10, Verses 79-92.


Bin Katheer (Volume 2: 203-205) mentioned that when Moussa (pbuh) hit the sea with his stick, it split like a huge cliff on each side, creating twelve paths for the twelve Israelite tribes, each one separated from the other by a glass window. When the Pharaoh and his army arrived and saw the awesome view, they were afraid to proceed but the senior angel, Jibril (Gabriel) encouraged them to continue by marching in front of them. When all of them were in the middle of the path, God ordered the sea waters to merge again, drowning them all.

Bin Katheer added that despite what they saw by their eyes, the Israelites asked Moussa to show them the body of the Pharaoh to make sure that he died. God gave them what they wanted by throwing the body of the Pharaoh to the shore, so they can see it, as a sign of God's punishment for those who oppress believers.


I see a different interpretation for the Arabic words liman khalfaka (to those after you). The Israelites of Moussa (pbuh) lived at the time of the Pharaoh, not after his time. Therefore, the sign was intended to be to those who would come after that time, simply because the Israelites saw the miracle and lived it by themselves.

The interpretation I see closer to the meaning of these words in the verse is that Allah, praise to Him, decided to preserve the  Pharaoh's body to be a sign for the generations of humans who would come after the Pharaoh's time.


The Pharaoh's body was probably carried to the Egyptian capital by those who stayed away and did not drown, to be mummified, in order to be preserved for future generations of humans to see. Mummies of the Egyptian pharaohs were discovered in 1898 and now displayed in the Royal Mummies Room of the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo.


There is no agreement between historians and biblical scholars about the pharaohs involved in the story or the time they lived. Some authors identify the oppressive Pharaoh as Seti I, the Exodus pharaoh as Ramses II, and the Exodus event about 1290 BC, according to Encyclopedia Britannica.



( 17: 49).


And they say : When we are bones and dust, are we going to be resurrected as a new creation? (Al-Issra, 17: 49).


Bin Katheer (Volume 2: 64-65) explained this verse mentioning that the Quraish non-believers challenged the Prophet (bbbuh) concerning the resurrection of humans in the Day of Judgment. They wondered how God can recreate humans to question them, after they had become bones and dust.



 ( 17: 50).

ۡ ۡ۬ ڪۡ ۚ  ( 17: 51).

Say: (Yes, you will be resurrected even if) you are stones or iron (Al-Issra, 17: 50).

Or a created matter, which is greater (or stronger than iron) in your minds (Al-Issra, 17: 51).


Allah, praise to Him, has said, "Yes." You will be resurrected even if you become stone, iron (Verse 17.50), or stronger than that (Verse 17.51).


What's relevant in this verse is the fact that humans can become fossils in rocks (stones). Some bodies can be fossilized in clay layers which are rich in iron, thus becoming iron fossils.

The verse is saying to the nonbelievers that the Creator, praise to Him, will still resurrect them for reckoning in the Day of Judgment even if they change themselves into something stronger than iron.


  ( 30: 22).



And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, as well as the difference of your languages and colors. In these, there are signs for people of knowledge (Al-Room, 30: 22).

This verse addresses scholars from various social and natural sciences, inviting them to believe in God. For natural scientists, particularly those studying how the universe came into being, this verse invites them to have a look at the verses of the Holy Qur'an, which tell humans how this happened. When they find that their knowledge about the universe has already been revealed in the Holy Qur'an, then this is the evidence for them to believe that the Holy Qur'an is God's message to humanity.


For more information about this part, readers may look at The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity, particularly the books written by Dr. Muhammed Zaghlul Raghib El-Naggar, one of which was cited in the references of the article.


This verse is inviting scientists to believe as they contemplate its meanings. The verse tells us that the difference in human languages and in colors of human skin is related to the creation of heavens and earth.


To sum up, the difference in human skin colors and languages is related to the adaptation to different environmental regions, which have been created by the shape of the Earth and its relationship to the Sun and the Cosmos, as Verse 30.22 points.



( 39: 5).



He has created the heavens and the earth with the right (proportions). He makes night to succeed day (in a cycle), and He makes day to succeed night (in a cycle), and He ordained for the Sun and the Moon that each runs on for a specific time term (Al-Zumar, 39: 5).


This verse provides us with more information about how the heavens and the earth have been created with the right proportions to allow them to be sustained and functioning. Day and night have been allowed to succeed each other, as a result of the earth turning around its self. This allows living organisms to work and rest in a regular cycle. Seasons have been possible by the earth orbiting the sun in an annual journey, which allows diversification of activities on Earth. Had there been only night (if for example the earth is too far away from the sun) or only day time (if a planet is located between two suns), then life could not be sustained as it has been on Earth. The planet could be too cold or too hot to sustain prosperous life.


Thus, part of the creation of life on planet Earth is the suitable conditions of temperature, light, and darkness, which were made possible by God's creation of the heavens and the earth with the right proportions. See also 14.19 above.


The verse also includes scientific facts about the sun and the moon. It mentions that both of them are running, each one has its own orbit, they will continue doing so for a specific term of time.


( 79: 30).


And the Earth, after that, He made it egg-shaped (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 30).


The Earth is shaped in the form of a less-than-prefect globe, pointed at its both poles and enlarged a little bit at its equator. So, it is not flat as Europeans thought at the time of the revelation and for centuries after that. If the Holy Qur'an described the Earth shape as just a circular globe, then somebody would challenge it later because it is a little bit less than a perfect globe. That's why it is described as an egg-shaped, which is the closest shape that people could identify.


The egg-shape of the Earth allows the light coming from the Sun to reach our planet in different distances, the shortest of which is to the equator and the longest is to each of the North and South poles.


It follows that the equatorial region is the hottest because it is the closest to the sun, while the Arctic and Antarctic regions are the coldest because they are the farthest regions from the sun. This explains differences in human languages and skin color, as explained in Verse 30.22 above.


The most relevant word in this verse is the verb "daha," which means: made it look like an egg in its shape. This author never heard the usage of the verb daha or its noun dahya (egg) in the eastern Mediterranean Arab region. However, he heard the noun in Libya in the early 1970s and learned that other North African Arabs use it to refer to an egg.


The egg-shape of Earth allowed the existence of the major geographical regions of vegetation and rainfall, with rain forests on the equatorial (tropical) region and less rain to the north and south of it (the dry regions), then to more rain as we go farther to the north and south (the moist regions), and finally to the absence of vegetation to the northernmost and southernmost parts of the planet (polar regions) because snow and ice cover the freezing land.


Moreover, by describing Earth as egg-shaped, God Almighty praise to Him is telling humans that the Holy Qur'an is His Word and message to humanity. Europeans thought that the earth was flat until Copernicus and Galileo told them that it was a globe, allowing Columbus and other explorers to sail west in order to reach India in the east. More recent geographical research showed that the earth is not a perfect globe. For more information, see Footnote # 4.


To sum up, this great verse is telling us that God, the Knowledgeable, made Earth egg-shaped, in order to make it inhabitable by His creatures. The egg-shape of the earth created the rainfall and vegetation regions, as Verse 79.51 also reveals. This geographical diversity encouraged human migrations from less hospitable to more hospitable regions, and consequently leading to phenotypic and cultural differences between diverse human population groups.



( 79: 31).


He produced as a result (of its egg-shape) its water and its pasture (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 31).


Verses 13.41 and 22.44 give support for the fact that Earth is a less-than-prefect globe by explaining how this has happened.


ۡ ۡ ۡ ٱۡۡ ۡ ۡۚ ( 13: 41).

 Haven't they seen that We come to Earth reducing it from its outlying parts? (Al-Ra'd, 13: 41).


The meaning is that the outlying parts of the Earth have been reduced leading to its shape of a less-than-perfect globe.



Allah Almighty has told the truth.







1. The story of the creation of Adam in the Holy Qur'an


More details of the creation of Adam in the Holy Qur'an can be found in Al-Baqara, Chapter 2, Verses 30-39 and in other chapters, such as Al-'Araf, Chapter 7, Verses 11-26, Al-Issra, Chapter 17, Verses 61-65, Al-Kahf, Chapter 18, Verse 50, and Taha, Chapter 20, Verses 115-123.



2. Arabic text of the Hadith and its interpretation, particularly the meaning of the Arabic word ('adalak):


The three renown interpreters of the Holy Quran, Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtobi, and Ibn Katheer, may Allah reward them for their great works, agreed that the word / 'adalak / means made you upright and straightened in your stature, in the best of images and shapes. They also referred to each human has all the genetic heritage of humanity all the way to Adam. Ibn Katheer added the Hadeeth about walking between the two "burdayn" or "bardayn," which was discussed above in the article.


( ) :


" : "


" ."

( ):


" ." ( ).

. .



3. Egg-Shaped Earth:

  1. http://www.answering-christianity.com/egg-shaped_earth.htm
    Adio of Dr. Muhammed Zaghlool Al-Najjar.


    Play NASA-Video of Earth's real shape and rotation


    More detailed pictures from the NASA site: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]





A. Yusuf Ali. 1983 [1934]. "The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation, and Commentary." Published by Amana Corp., Brentwood, Maryland, USA


Bin Katheer, Isma'il. "Interpretation of the Holy Qur'an." Hadeeths were revised and commented on by Hani Al-Haj, who compared them with those in the books of Nasseruddin Al-Albani. Published by Al-Tawfiqiya (Al Tawfikia) Bookshop, Cairo, Egypt. No year of publication but it should be in the last two decades of the twentieth century. (Author's name and insignia: Imam Al-Hafedh Emaduddin, Abul Fida, Isma'il Bin Katheer, Al-Dimashqi, who died in 774 Hijriya, about 1372 AD).


The Holy Qur'an, the Arabic text, as published in www.quranexplorer.com




* Dr. Hassan Ali El-Najjar has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Georgia. He is also a native speaker of Arabic. He was born in Gaza, Palestine, in 1369 Hijriya, 1950 AD.


The authors translation of the meanings of the verses mentioned in this article is solely his responsibility though he consulted with three other translations of the Holy Quran, namely those of Yusuf Ali, Mohsin, and Picthal, found in www.quranexplorer.com . The author also made use of the works of early Islamic scholars such as Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, Bin Katheer, and Al-Siyouti.


Readers are advised that it is the meaning of the verses which is translated and interpreted here.  It is a human effort that may be fallible and erroneous. Further, there are differences between a translator and another and between an interpreter and another due to differences in their linguistic, scientific, and cultural backgrounds. There is no claim of ultimate accuracy in the translation, as verses of the Holy Qur'an can be best understood through the Arabic text of revelation.


** Stages of writing this article:


Verses in Arabic and translations from other translators, on October 29, 2007.


Translation revised by this author to become his responsibility, on July 8, 2008.


Initial author's interpretation and comparison with the biological literature, in November-December 2008.


The Arabic quotations of the Qur'anic verses were taken from:




Another great website, in which readers can find the Arabic text of the Holy Quran, various translations in English and other major languages, transliteration in English letters, recitations for many famous reciters of the Holy Quran, all can be found at: